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Table 3 Associations between disclosure of same-sex practices and healthcare stigma among MSM in SSA (pooled), 2014–2016 (N = 3040)

From: Disclosure of same-sex practices and experiences of healthcare stigma among cisgender men who have sex with men in five sub-Saharan African countries

  Afraid to seek health services Avoided health services Gossiped about by healthcare providers Felt mistreated in a health center
  Empty OR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI) Empty OR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI) Empty OR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI) Empty OR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI)
Fixed effects
Same-sex practices disclosure
 Not to a FM or a HCW (ref) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 To a FM only 1.04 (0.80, 1.35) 1.04 (0.80, 1.35) 1.02 (0.77, 1.36) 1.04 (0.77, 1.39) 1.66** (1.16, 2.37) 1.70** (1.18, 2.45) 1.42 (0.86, 2.33) 1.56 ~ (0.94, 2.59)
 To a HCW only 1.64** (1.18, 2.27) 1.60** (1.14, 2.25) 1.76** (1.24, 2.50) 1.74*** (1.22, 2.50) 1.45 (0.86, 2.45) 1.32 (0.77, 2.25) 2.79** (1.55, 5.03) 2.62** (1.43, 4.81)
 To a FM and a HCW 1.93** (1.33, 2.79) 1.71** (1.16, 2.52) 1.77** (1.18, 2.65) 1.59* (1.04, 2.42) 4.14*** (2.67, 6.40) 3.78*** (2.38, 5.99) 4.44*** (1.95, 6.05) 3.39*** (1.86, 6.20)
Random effect
 Country-level variance (SE) 0.35*** (0.23) 0.34*** (0.22) 0.28*** (0.19) 0.42*** (0.28) 0.40*** (0.27) 0.31*** (0.21) 0.31*** (0.22) 0.30*** (0.21) 0.26*** (0.20) 0.35*** (0.25) 0.28*** (0.20) 0.19** (0.15)
Model characteristics
 Intra-class correlation 9.7% 9.3% 7.9% 11.4% 10.9% 8.6% 8.5% 8.3% 7.5% 9.7% 9.9% 5.3%
  1. ~p < 0.10; *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001
  2. MSM, men who have sex with men; SSA, sub-Saharan Africa; OR, odds ratio; aOR, adjusted odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; FM, family member; HCW, healthcare worker; SE, standard error
  3. Controlling for age, education, income, HIV status, and depression