Skip to main content

Table 3 Associations between disclosure of same-sex practices and healthcare stigma among MSM in SSA (pooled), 2014–2016 (N = 3040)

From: Disclosure of same-sex practices and experiences of healthcare stigma among cisgender men who have sex with men in five sub-Saharan African countries

 

Afraid to seek health services

Avoided health services

Gossiped about by healthcare providers

Felt mistreated in a health center

 

Empty

OR (95% CI)

aOR (95% CI)

Empty

OR (95% CI)

aOR (95% CI)

Empty

OR (95% CI)

aOR (95% CI)

Empty

OR (95% CI)

aOR (95% CI)

Fixed effects

Same-sex practices disclosure

 Not to a FM or a HCW (ref)

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

 To a FM only

1.04 (0.80, 1.35)

1.04 (0.80, 1.35)

1.02 (0.77, 1.36)

1.04 (0.77, 1.39)

1.66** (1.16, 2.37)

1.70** (1.18, 2.45)

1.42 (0.86, 2.33)

1.56 ~ (0.94, 2.59)

 To a HCW only

1.64** (1.18, 2.27)

1.60** (1.14, 2.25)

1.76** (1.24, 2.50)

1.74*** (1.22, 2.50)

1.45 (0.86, 2.45)

1.32 (0.77, 2.25)

2.79** (1.55, 5.03)

2.62** (1.43, 4.81)

 To a FM and a HCW

1.93** (1.33, 2.79)

1.71** (1.16, 2.52)

1.77** (1.18, 2.65)

1.59* (1.04, 2.42)

4.14*** (2.67, 6.40)

3.78*** (2.38, 5.99)

4.44*** (1.95, 6.05)

3.39*** (1.86, 6.20)

Random effect

 Country-level variance (SE)

0.35*** (0.23)

0.34*** (0.22)

0.28*** (0.19)

0.42*** (0.28)

0.40*** (0.27)

0.31*** (0.21)

0.31*** (0.22)

0.30*** (0.21)

0.26*** (0.20)

0.35*** (0.25)

0.28*** (0.20)

0.19** (0.15)

Model characteristics

 Intra-class correlation

9.7%

9.3%

7.9%

11.4%

10.9%

8.6%

8.5%

8.3%

7.5%

9.7%

9.9%

5.3%

  1. ~p < 0.10; *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001
  2. MSM, men who have sex with men; SSA, sub-Saharan Africa; OR, odds ratio; aOR, adjusted odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; FM, family member; HCW, healthcare worker; SE, standard error
  3. Controlling for age, education, income, HIV status, and depression