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Table 2 Differences in sociodemographic and other characteristics by healthcare stigma among MSM in SSA, 2014–2016 (N = 3040)

From: Disclosure of same-sex practices and experiences of healthcare stigma among cisgender men who have sex with men in five sub-Saharan African countries

  Afraid to seek health services Avoided seeking health services Gossiped about by healthcare providers Felt mistreated in a health center
  Yes (n = 539, 17.7%) No (n = 2501, 82.3%) Yes (n = 436, 14.3%) No (n = 2604, 85.7%) Yes (n = 211, 6.9%) No (n = 2829, 93.1%) Yes (n = 120, 3.9%) No (n = 2920, 96.1%)
Country, n (%)a
 Côte d’Ivoire 196 (36.4) 751 (30.0) 127 (29.1) 820 (31.5) 81 (38.4) 866 (30.6) 24 (20.0) 923 (31.6)
 Cameroon 82 (15.2) 756 (30.2) 79 (18.1) 759 (29.2) 40 (19.0) 798 (28.2) 25 (20.8) 813 (27.8)
 Lesotho 51 (9.5) 425 (17.0) 35 (8.0) 441 (16.9) 15 (7.1) 461 (16.3) 16 (13.3) 460 (15.8)
 eSwatini 144 (26.7) 249 (10.0) 138 (31.7) 255 (9.8) 57 (27.0) 336 (11.9) 45 (37.5) 348 (11.9)
 Senegal 66 (12.2) 320 (12.8) 57 (13.1) 329 (12.6) 18 (8.5) 368 (13.0) 10 (8.3) 376 (12.9)
 Chi-square p-value < 0.001   < 0.001   < 0.001   < 0.001  
Age in years
 Mean (SD) 24.4 (4.9) 24.5 (5.3) 24.7 (4.7) 24.5 (5.3) 25.1 (5.3) 24.4 (5.2) 25.4 (5.5) 24.5 (5.2)
 Median (IQR) 24 (21–27) 23 (21–27) 24 (21–27) 23 (21–27) 24 (21–28) 23 (21–27) 24 (22–28) 23 (21–27)
 Wilcoxon p-value 0.067   < 0.010   < 0.010   < 0.05  
Education, n (%)
  ≤ High school 386 (71.6) 2000 (80.0) 314 (72.0) 2072 (79.6) 151 (71.6) 2235 (79.0) 90 (75.0) 2296 (78.6)
  > High school 153 (28.4) 501 (20.0) 122 (28.0) 532 (20.4) 60 (28.4) 594 (21.0) 30 (25.0) 624 (21.4)
 Chi-square p-value < 0.001   < 0.001   < 0.050   0.343  
Income, n (%)
 Quintile 1 230 (42.7) 1033 (41.3) 162 (37.2) 1101 (42.3) 81 (38.4) 1182 (41.8) 31 (25.8) 1232 (42.2)
 Quintile 2 66 (12.2) 394 (15.8) 59 (13.5) 401 (15.4) 32 (15.2) 428 (15.1) 17 (14.2) 443 (15.2)
 Quintile 3 50 (9.3) 156 (6.2) 44 (10.1) 162 (6.2) 19 (9.0) 187 (6.6) 20 (16.7) 186 (6.4)
 Quintile 4 105 (19.5) 522 (20.9) 85 (19.5) 542 (20.8) 41 (19.4) 586 (20.7) 31 (25.8) 596 (20.4)
 Quintile 5 88 (16.3) 396 (15.8) 86 (19.7) 398 (15.3) 38 (18.0) 446 (15.8) 21 (17.5) 463 (15.9)
 Chi-square p-value < 0.05   < 0.010   0.561   < 0.001  
HIV status, n (%)
 Negative 363 (67.4) 1747 (69.9) 294 (67.4) 1816 (69.7) 149 (70.6) 1961 (69.3) 78 (65.0) 2032 (69.6)
 Positive 39 (7.2) 133 (5.3) 28 (6.4) 144 (5.5) 18 (8.5) 154 (5.4) 12 (10.0) 160 (5.5)
 Unknown 137 (25.4) 621 (24.8) 114 (26.2) 644 (24.7) 44 (20.9) 714 (25.2) 30 (25.0) 728 (24.9)
 Chi-square p-value 0.188   0.574   < 0.088   0.105  
Depression, n (%)
 Yes 161 (29.9) 329 (13.2) 149 (34.2) 341 (13.1) 71 (33.6) 419 (14.8) 51 (42.5) 439 (15.0)
 No 378 (70.1) 2172 (86.8) 287 (65.8) 2263 (86.9) 140 (66.4) 2410 (85.2) 69 (57.5) 2481 (85.0)
 Chi-square p-value < 0.001   < 0.001   < 0.001   < 0.001  
  1. MSM, men who have sex with men; SSA, sub-Saharan Africa; SD, standard deviation; IQR, interquartile range; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus
  2. aPrevalence estimates for Cameroon, Senegal, eSwatini, and Côte d’Ivoire represent valid sample estimates but may not represent population-level estimates due to lack of adjustment for respondent-driven sampling