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Table 2 Bivariate analysis to assess the relationship between the independent variables and maternal health care service utilization (n = 4278)

From: Association between health insurance enrolment and maternal health care service utilization among women in Ethiopia

Variables Recommended ANC P value Skilled Delivery P value Received PNC P-value
No (%) Yes (%) No (%) Yes (%) No (%) Yes (%)
Health insurance
 No 3121(95.0) 958(92.4) 0.001 2239 (95.2) 1840(93.4) 0.09 3773(94.7) 306(91.5) 0.06
 Yes 126 (5.0) 73 (7.6) 76(4.8) 123(6.6) 169 (5.3) 30 (8.5)
Age
 15–19 259 (6.9) 53 (4.6) 0.013 161 (6.0) 151(7.2) 0.000 297 (6.6) 15 (4.9) 0.45
 20–24 716(20.5) 211(19.9) 437 (17.1) 490(25.7) 861(20.1) 66 (24.8)
 25–34 1870(59.6) 689(66.7) 1360 (61.2) 1199(60.5) 861(20.1) 66 (24.8)
 35–49 402(12.9) 78 (8.8) 357 (15.7) 123 (6.6) 2344(61.0) 215(59.4)
Education
 No education 1962(61.8) 333(40.0) 0.000 1673 (71.8) 622(35.5) 0.000 2154(58.9) 141(43.5) 0.001
 Primary 947(30.1) 355(35.3) 560 (26.1) 742 (38.9) 1197(30.7) 105(36.1)
 Secondary 240 (5.6) 197(14.1) 71 (1.7) 366 (15.7) 386 (6.8) 51 (12.0)
 Higher 98 (2.5) 146(10.6) 11 (0.4) 233 (9.8) 205 (3.7) 39 (8.3)
Marital status
 Never in union 34 (0.9) 22 (2.3) 0.029 14 (0.7) 42(1.9) 0.041 50 (1.2) 6 (1.7) 0.74
 Currently union 2921(91.3) 916(90.6) 2109(91.8) 1728(90.2) 3544(91.3) 293(90.7)
 Formerly union 292 (7.7) 93 (7.0) 192 (7.4) 193 (7.9) 348 (7.6) 37 (7.6)
Residence
 Urban 565(12.1) 545(33.5) 0.000 143 (3.3) 967 (36.4) 0.000 984 (15.2) 126(27.6) 0.000
 Rural 2682(87.9) 486(66.5) 2172(96.7) 996 (63.6) 2958(84.8) 210(72.4)
Wealth index
 Poorest 1040(19.5) 101(8.5) 0.000 923 (23.8) 218 (7.5) 0.000 1098(18.2) 43 (6.9) 0.000
 Poorer 569(21.6) 95 (11.7) 431 (22.8) 233 (14.9) 620 (20.4) 44 (11.6)
 Middle 539 (23.1) 113(15.5) 416 (24.5) 236 (17.1) 601 (21.7) 51 (21.0)
 Richer 455 (19.7) 126(21.6) 344 (21.1) 237 (18.3) 524 (19.6) 57 (25.6)
 Richest 644 (16.2) 596(42.7) 201 (7.7) 1039(42.2) 1099(20.0) 141(34.9)
Occupation
 Not Working 1722(51.1) 502(47.7) 0.214 1263 (51.9) 961 (48.2) 0.133 2085(51.3) 139(38.3) 0.00
 Working 1525(48.9) 529(52.3) 1052 (48.1) 1002(51.8) 1857(48.7) 197(61.7)
Media access
 No 2197(67.4) 345(41.7) 0.000 1776 (73.9) 766 (44.9) 0.000 2398(64.2) 144(41.9) 0.000
 Yes 1050(32.6) 686(58.3) 539 (26.1) 1197(55.1) 1544(35.8) 192(58.1)
Distance
 Big problem 1726(56.5) 353(40.2) 0.000 1433 (62.0) 646 (40.0) 0.000 1963(54.8) 116(35.9) 0.000
 No big problem 1521(43.5) 678(59.8) 882 (38.0) 1317(60.0) 1979(45.2) 220(64.1)
Pregnancy wanted
 Then 2590(75.4) 832(78.4) 0.23 1844 (75.4) 1578(76.9) 0.18 3154(76.2) 268(72.8) 0.025
 Later 419 (15.7) 150(15.1) 292 (15.2) 277 (16.2) 521 (15.1) 48(22.4)
 No more 238 (8.9) 49 (6.5) 179 (9.4) 108 (6.9) 267 (8.7) 20 (4.8)
Parity
 One 1035(29.3) 435(38.6) 0.000 572 (21.8) 898 (45.6) 0.000 1356(30.9) 114(32.4) 0.003
 2–4 1133(36.2) 419(39.4) 807 (36.5) 745 (37.3) 1417(36.1) 135(46.6)
  > =5 1079(34.5) 177(22.0) 936 (41.7) 320 (17.1) 1169(33.0) 87 (21.1)