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Table 1 The characteristics of the study participants

From: Declines in health literacy and health-related quality of life during the COVID-19 pandemic: a longitudinal study of the Japanese general population

  2020 2021
N % N %
Age
 20–29 80 9.7 67 8.1
 30–39 110 13.3 109 13.2
 40–49 140 17.0 126 15.3
 50–59 178 21.6 187 22.6
 60–69 151 18.3 146 17.7
 70- 167 20.2 191 23.1
Mean (SD) 53.4 16.0 54.6 16.0
Gender
 Male 401 48.6 401 48.6
 Female 425 51.5 425 51.5
Educational attainment
 Junior high school 30 3.6 30 3.6
 High school/Vocational school 348 42.1 348 42.1
 2-year college 115 13.9 115 13.9
 University or higher 333 40.3 333 40.3
Self-assessed economic status
 Low:1–3 139 16.8 139 16.8
 Middle low: 4–5 354 42.9 337 40.8
 Middle high: 6–7 292 35.4 301 36.4
 High: 8–10 39 4.7 45 5.5
 missing 2 0.2 4 0.5
Work status
 Self-employed 78 9.4 84 10.2
 Full-time employed 320 38.7 305 36.9
 Part-time employed 148 17.9 154 18.6
 Others 278 33.7 281 34.1
 missing 2 0.2 2 0.2
Presence of a currently treated disease
 Yes 358 43.3 358 43.3
 No 442 53.5 456 55.2
 missing 26 3.2 12 1.5