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Table 1 shows OR and 95% CI per factor level for on-label pain indication. ICC = intraclass correlation coefficient. σ2 = random intercept variance

From: Over-the-counter analgesics use is associated with pain and psychological distress among adolescents: a mixed effects approach in cross-sectional survey data from Norway

  Odds Ratio CI p
OTCA weekly
(Intercept) 0.04 0.03–0.04 < 0.001
 Neck and shoulder pain 2 1.11 1.08–1.14 < 0.001
 Neck and shoulder pain 3 1.26 1.22–1.31 < 0.001
 Neck and shoulder pain 4 1.27 1.21–1.33 < 0.001
 Muscle and joint pain 2 1.20 1.17–1.23 < 0.001
 Muscle and joint pain 3 1.44 1.39–1.49 < 0.001
 Muscle and joint pain 4 1.86 1.77–1.96 < 0.001
 Headache 2 1.90 1.82–1.98 < 0.001
 Headache 3 7.17 6.86–7.49 < 0.001
 Headache 4 17.78 16.87–18.73 < 0.001
 Abdominal pain 2 1.31 1.28–1.35 < 0.001
 Abdominal pain 3 1.88 1.82–1.95 < 0.001
 Abdominal pain 4 2.24 2.12–2.36 < 0.001
Random effects
 σ2 3.29
 ICC 0.01
 N Region 7
 N Year 5
 Observations 297,480
 Marginal R2 / Conditional R2 0.267 / 0.271
OTCA weekly * Sex
 (Intercept) 0.01 0.01–0.01 < 0.001
 Neck and shoulder pain 2 1.17 1.13–1.21 < 0.001
 Neck and shoulder pain 3 1.50 1.44–1.57 < 0.001
 Neck and shoulder pain 4 1.58 1.50–1.67 < 0.001
 Muscle and joint pain 1 1.02 0.99–1.05 0.197
 Muscle and joint pain 2 1.12 1.08–1.17 < 0.001
 Muscle and joint pain 3 1.30 1.23–1.38 < 0.001
 Headache 2 2.30 2.16–2.45 < 0.001
 Headache 3 8.55 8.02–9.12 < 0.001
 Headache 4 21.91 20.44–23.49 < 0.001
 Abdominal pain 2 2.14 2.05–2.22 < 0.001
 Abdominal pain 3 3.83 3.68–4.00 < 0.001
 Abdominal pain 4 3.88 3.66–4.12 < 0.001
Random effects
 σ2 3.29
 ICC 0.01
 N Region 7
 N Year 5
 Observations 297,480
 Marginal R2 / Conditional R2 0.342 / 0.346