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Table 3 Proportion of severe under-5 child undernutrition in urban-rural context with respective to different socioeconomic characteristics

From: Urban-rural differences in the associated factors of severe under-5 child undernutrition based on the composite index of severe anthropometric failure (CISAF) in Bangladesh

Characteristics Rural Urban
Number Prevalence (95% CI) Number Prevalence (95% CI)
Maternal age (years)
 15–19 85 11.5 (9.2, 14.2) 36 13.2 (8.9, 19.1)
 20–24 201 10.5 (8.9, 12.3) 77 9.5 (6.9, 12.9)
 25–29 176 12.3 (10.4, 14.5) 68 7.9 (6.0, 10.4)
 30–34 103 12.4 (9.9, 15.5) 41 8.6 (5.8, 12.6)
 34–39 35 11.0 (7.9, 15.1) 84 13.9 (8.8, 21.1)
 ≥ 40 9 11.8 (6.1, 21.7) 7 9.8 (3.8, 23.1)
  χ2 = 3.58, p = 0.669 χ2 = 11.09, p = 0.186
Parents’ education
 Both parents uneducated 42 21.5 (15.7, 28.8) 23 25.9 (17.2, 36.9)
 Only father uneducated 113 16.9 (13.7, 20.5) 28 13.9 (9.0, 21.0)
 Only mother uneducated 35 21.8 (15.5, 29.6) 11 12.0 (6.1, 22.1)
 Both parents educated 419 9.8 (11.3, 14.9) 194 8.4 (6.9, 10.2)
  χ2 = 64.76, p < 0.001 χ2 = 37.89, p < 0.001
Mother’s income-earning status
 Not working 321 10.7 (9.2, 12.3) 166 8.8 (7.1, 10.8)
 Currently working 288 12.6 (11.1, 14.2) 90 11.4 (8.9, 14.6)
  χ2 = 4.40, p = 0.080 χ2 = 4.52, p = 0.060
Underweight mother
 No 468 10.5 (9.4, 11.8) 201 8.9 (7.3, 10.7)
 Yes 141 17.1 (14.4, 20.2) 55 15.4 (11.1, 21.0)
  χ2 = 26.99, p < 0.001 χ2 = 12.99, p = 0.001
Mothers received antenatal care
 No 49 17.8 (13.1, 23.8) 17 20.9 (11.8, 34.3)
 Yes 325 11.2 (9.9, 12.5) 147 9.9 (8.1, 12.0)
  χ2 = 10.35, p = 0.003 χ2 = 10.12, p = 0.012
Mothers received postnatal care
 No 92 9.5 (7.6, 11.9) 40 5.9 (4.0, 8.8)
 Yes 282 12.9 (11.4, 14.6) 123 13.1 (10.3, 16.5)
  χ2 = 7.30, p = 0.015 χ2 = 19.57, p = 0.001
Mother’s attitudes toward wife-beating
 Not justified 458 10.9 (9.7, 12.2) 220 9.7 (8.0, 11.7)
 Justified 151 13.9 (11.5, 16.6) 36 9.1 (5.8, 14.0)
χ2 = 7.10, p = 0.020 χ2 = 0.14, p = 0.775
Mothers’ decision-making autonomya
 Not participated 96 11.3 (9.2, 13.8) 36 11.0 (7.8, 15.3)
 Participated 513 11.5 (10.3, 12.9) 220 9.4 (7.7, 11.4)
  χ2 = 0.03, p = 0.865 χ2 = 0.78, p = 0.390
Religion
 Islam 557 11.5 (10.4, 12.8) 236 9.7 (8.0, 11.7)
 Others 52 11.0 (8.5, 14.2) 20 8.5 (4.6, 15.1)
  χ2 = 0.12, p = 0.726 χ2 = 0.28, p = 0.676
Source of drinking water
 Improved 532 11.8 (10.6, 13.1) 229 9.6 (8.0, 11.6)
 Unimproved 77 9.6 (7.5, 12.1) 27 9.3 (15.0, 20.7)
  χ2 = 3.03, p = 0.102 χ2 = 0.03, p = 0.862
Cooking fuel
 Clean fuel 82 8.6 (6.6, 11.1) 95 7.9 (6.2, 10.1)
 Solid fuel 527 12.2 (10.9, 13.5) 161 12.1 (9.7, 15.1)
  χ2 = 9.98, p = 0.011 χ2 = 12.99, p = 0.005
Type of toilet facility
 Improved 272 10.2 (8.8, 11.7) 146 8.4 (6.8, 10.5)
 Unimproved 337 13.0 (11.5, 14.6) 110 12.0 (8.9, 16.0)
  χ2 = 9.73, p = 0.004 χ2 = 8.35, p = 0.057
Mass media exposureb
 No 328 14.6 (12.7, 16.7) 82 15.4 (10.8, 21.4)
 Yes 281 9.3 (8.2, 10.7) 174 8.3 (7.0, 9.8)
  χ2 = 33.16, p < 0.001 χ2 = 23.01, p = 0.008
Wealth indexc
 Poorest 234 16.1 (14.0, 18.4) 50 18.7 (11.7, 28.7)
 Poorer 178 12.8 (10.9, 15.1) 40 16.1 (11.6, 22.1)
 Middle 98 9.2 (7.3, 11.6) 41 10.6 (7.2, 15.4)
 Richer 75 8.9 (6.8, 11.6) 63 9.7 (7.1, 13.1)
 Richest 24 5.0 (3.1, 8.1) 62 6.4 (4.9, 8.3)
  χ2 = 60.34, p < 0.001 χ2 = 44.82, p = < 0.001
Children age
 0–11 months 95 8.1 (6.6, 10.0) 53 7.5 (5.0, 11.0)
 12–23 months 153 13.4 (11.3, 15.8) 56 10.4 (7.6, 14.1)
 24–35 months 155 15.2 (12.8, 17.9) 62 14.2 (10.8, 18.6)
 36–47 months 102 10.8 (8.6, 13.5) 41 8.2 (5.6, 12.0)
 48–59 months 104 10.1 (8.1, 12.6) 44 7.9 (5.5, 11.3)
  χ2 = 31.49, p < 0.001 χ2 = 18.48, p = 0.013
Sex of child
 Male 326 11.4 (10.1, 12.9) 137 10.5 (8.5, 12.8)
 Female 283 11.6 (10.0, 13.4) 119 8.7 (6.8, 11.1)
  χ2 = 0.03, p = 0.871 χ2 = 2.29, p = 0.159
Birth order
 First 197 10.1 (8.6, 11.8) 84 8.3 (6.4, 10.9)
 Second 184 10.7 (9.1, 12.4) 83 8.7 (6.5, 11.7)
 Third 114 12.3 (10.1, 14.8) 41 9.3 (6.5, 13.0)
 Fourth and above 114 16.2 (12.8, 20.3) 48 18.9 (14.1, 24.8)
  χ2 = 19.99, p = 0.001 χ2 = 27.42, p = 0.002
Small birth weightd
 No 74 6.6 (5.2, 8.4) 47 6.6 (4.8, 9.0)
 Yes 32 18.3 (12.8, 25.3) 29 18.3 (11.8, 27.1)
  χ2 = 48.54, p < 0.001 χ2 = 29.06, p = 0.003
Recent morbidity statuse
 No 112 11.2 (9.8, 12.7) 147 10.4 (8.4, 12.9)
 Yes 297 11.8 (10.4, 13.5) 109 8.7 (6.7, 11.1)
  χ2 = 0.53, p = 0.495 χ2 = 2.32, p = 0.206
Total 609 11.5 (10.4, 12.7) 256 9.6 (8.0, 11.5)
  1. adefined as women’s decision-making power relative to their male partners
  2. bexposure to either radio, television, newspapers, or magazines at least once a week
  3. cintegrating household asset ownership and access to drinking water and sanitation
  4. dchild’s size and weight at birth based on a mother’s perception
  5. echild had at least one morbid condition out of diarrhea, fever and cough in the 2 weeks preceding the survey
  6. p values are obtained from Chi-square estimation