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Table 5 Percentage changes and correlates of any form of IPV  from 2005-06 to 2015-16 as per the National Family Health Survey (Rounds 3 and 4), India

From: Trends and correlates of intimate partner violence experienced by ever-married women of India: results from National Family Health Survey round III and IV

  NFHS 3 NFHS 4 % Relative change Unadjusted OR
(95% CI)
Adjusted OR
(95% CI) and p-value
Total 38.9 (38.55–39.31) 32.8 (32.4–33.2) −15.7    
Age
 15–19 (Ref) 33.0 (31.7–34.4) 23.1 (21.4–24.9) −30.0 1 1  
 20–24 37.0 (36.1–37.8) 28.4 (27.5–29.3) −23.2 1.3 (1.2–1.5) 1.1 (0.9–1.3) 0.07
 25–34 39.4 (38.5–40.2) 32.3 (31.5–33.1) −18.0 1.4 (1.3–1.6) 1.0 (0.8–1.2) 0.82
 35+ 40.2 (39.7–40.7) 34.6 (34.1–35.0) −13.9 1.5 (1.4–1.7) 0.9 (0.8–1.1) 0.44
Respondents education
 No education (Ref) 48.8 (48.3–49.4) 43.5 (42.8–44.2) −10.9 1 1  
 Primary 41.6 (40.6–42.5) 39.0 (37.9–40.0) −6.3 0.8 (0.8–0.9) 1 (0.9–1.0) 0.38
 Secondary+ 25.5 (24.9–26.0) 24.8 (24.4–25.3) −2.7 0.5 (0.4–0.5) 0.8 (0.7–0.8) 0.00
Partner Education
 No education (Ref) 49.7 (48.9–50.4) 45.1 (44.2–46.0) −9.3 1 1  
 Primary 46.6 (45.7–47.6) 40 (39.0–41.0) −14.2 0.9 (0.8–0.9) 1 (0.9–1.1) 0.67
 Secondary+ 31.7 (31.2–32.2) 27.7 (27.3–28.1) −12.6 0.5 (0.5–0.5) 0.9 (0.8–0.9) 0.00
Wealth Status
 Poorest (Ref) 51.8 (50.9–52.6) 45.5 (44.6–46.5) −12.2 1 1  
 Poorer 48.5 (47.6–49.3) 40.3 (39.4–41.2) −16.9 0.7 (0.7–0.8) 0.9 (0.9–1.0) 0.05
 Middle 41.9 (41.0–42.7) 34.6 (33.8–35.5) −17.4 0.6 (0.5–0.6) 0.8 (0.8–0.9) 0.00
 Richer 34.2 (33.4–35.0) 28.5 (27.7–29.3) −16.7 0.4 (0.4–0.5) 0.7 (0.7–0.8) 0.00
 Richest 20.2 (19.5–20.9) 18.8 (18.1–19.4) −6.9 0.3 (0.3–0.3) 0.5 (0.5–0.6) 0.00
Religion
 Hindu 38.8 (38.4–39.2) 33.7 (33.2–34.1) −13.1 1 1  
 Others 39.5 (38.6–40.3) 30.9 (30.1–31.7) −21.8 0.8 (0.7–0.8) 1 (0.9–1.0) 0.25
Place of residence
 Urban 31.4 (30.7–32.0) 24.4 (23.8–25.0) −22.3 1 1  
 Rural 42.3 (41.8–42.7) 33.5 (33.1–34.0) −20.8 1.4 (1.3–1.4) 0.9 (0.9–0.9) 0.00
Region
 North(Ref) 34.6 (33.5–35.6) 23.9 (23.0–24.9) −30.9 1 1  
 Central 44.3 (43.5–45.1) 36.4 (35.6–37.2) −17.8 2.0 (1.9–2.1) 1.3 (1.3–1.5) 0.00
 East 47.9 (47.1–48.7) 38.6 (37.8–39.4) −19.4 2.4 (2.2–2.5) 1.3 (1.4–1.6) 0.00
 North-east 38.3 (36.3–40.4) 27.1 (25.2–29.0) −29.2 1.4 (1.4–1.5) 1.2 (1.1–1.2) 0.00
 West 32.2 (31.2–33.1) 22 (21.2–22.8) −31.7 1.0 (1.0–1.1) 1.1 (1.0–1.2) 0.06
 South 30.5 (29.7–31.2) 32.8 (35.7–37.2) 7.5 1.9 (1.8–2.0) 1.4 (1.3–1.5) 0.00
Parity
 0(Ref) 27.6 (26.6–28.7) 20.3 (19.3–21.3) −26.4 1 1  
 1–2 32.6 (32.0–33.1) 29.2 (28.7–29.7) −10.4 1.4 (1.3–1.5) 1.4 (1.3–1.5) 0.00
 3+ 46.3 (45.8–46.9) 40.4 (39.8–41.0) −12.7 2.3 (2.1–2.4) 1.6 (1.5–1.8) 0.00
Economic empowerment status
 Not empower 29.1 (28.7–29.5) 1 1  
 Empower 35.7 (34.8–36.5) 1.4 (1.3–1.4) 1.1 (1.1–1.1) 0.00
Witnessing parental Violence
 No(Ref) 33.9 (33.5–34.3) 26.2 (25.8–26.7) −22.7 1 1  
 Yes 61.1 (60.2–62.0) 57.5 (56.9–58.0) −5.9 4.1 (4.0–4.3) 3.4 (3.2–3.5) 0.00
Duration of cohabitation in years
 0–4(Ref) 27.0 (26.2–27.8) 21.2 (20.5–21.9) −21.5 1 1  
 5–9 39.1 (38.3–39.9) 32.8 (32.0–33.7) −16.1 1.6 (1.5–1.7) 1.4 (1.3–1.5) 0.00
 10–14 42.8 (41.9–43.7) 35.3 (34.4–36.2) −17.5 1.8 (1.7–1.9) 1.5 (1.4–1.7) 0.00
 15–19 42.2 (41.2–43.1) 36.3 (35.4–37.3) −14.0 1.9 (1.8–2.0) 1.5 (1.4–1.7) 0.00
 20+ 42.4 (41.6–43.1) 36.6 (36.0–37.3) −13.7 1.9 (1.8–2.0) 1.5 (1.3–1.7) 0.00
Number of co wives
 None(Ref) 38.7 (38.3–39.1) 32.4 (32.0–32.7) −16.3 1 1  
 One and more 52.1 (49.1–55.0) 55.5 (52.4–58.6) 6.5 1.9 (1.7–2.2) 1.5 (1.3–1.8) 0.00
Age at first marriage
 Below 18(Ref) 45 (44.5–45.5) 38.4 (37.8–39.0) −14.7 1 1  
 More than 18 years 30.1 (29.5–30.6) 28.5 (28.0–28.9) −5.3 0.6 (0.6–0.7) 0.9 (0.9–0.9) 0.00
Partners controlling behaviours
 No(Ref) 27.8 (27.4–28.2) 19.9 (19.5–20.4) −28.4 1 1  
 Yes 55.7 (54.5–57.0) 47.7 (47.1–48.3) −14.4 3.7 (3.5–3.8) 3.2 (3.0–3.3) 0.00
Partner drink alcohol
 No(Ref) 32.0 (31.5–32.4) 32.4 (32.0–32.8) 1.3 1 1  
 Yes 53.8 (53.1–54.5) 59.8 (59.0–60.5) 11.2 3.3 (3.2–3.4) 2.5 (2.4–2.6) 0.00