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Table 3 Percentage changes and correlates of sexual IPV from 2005-06 to 2015–16 as per the National Family Health Survey (Rounds 3 and 4), India

From: Trends and correlates of intimate partner violence experienced by ever-married women of India: results from National Family Health Survey round III and IV

  NFHS-3 NFHS-4 % Relative change Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR
(95% CI) and p-Value
Total 9.6 (9.40–9.86) 6.7 (5.9–7.4) −30.2    
Age
 15–19 (Ref) 12.3 (11.4–13.3) 5.6 (4.7–6.6) −54.5 1 1  
 20–24 10.2 (9.7–10.8) 6.3 (5.8–6.7) −38.2 1.1 (0.9–1.3) 1.1 (0.8–1.4) 0.67
 25–34 9.9 (9.4–10.4) 7.0 (6.6–7.5) −29.3 1.1 (0.9–1.3) 0.9 (0.7–1.2) 0.58
 35+ 9.0 (8.7–9.3) 6.7 (6.4–6.9) −25.6 1.0 (0.8–1.3) 0.9 (0.7–1.2) 0.35
Respondents education
 No education (Ref) 12.3 (11.9–12.6) 9.2 (8.8–9.6) −25.2 1 1  
 Primary 10.3 (9.7–10.9) 8.1 (7.5–8.6) −21.4 0.9 (0.8–1.0) 1.1 (1.0–1.2) 0.30
 Secondary+ 6.1 (5.8–6.6) 4.8 (4.6–5.0) −21.3 0.5 (0.5–0.6) 0.9 (0.8–1.0) 0.10
Partner Education
 No education (Ref) 12.7 (12.2–13.2) 9.9 (9.4–10.5) −22.0 1 1  
 Primary 11.7 (11.1–12.3) 8.6 (8.1–9.2) −26.5 0.9 (0.8–1.0) 1 (0.9–1.1) 0.94
 Secondary+ 7.6 (7.3–7.9) 5.3 (5.1–5.5) −30.3 0.5 (0.5–0.6) 0.9 (0.8–0.9) 0.02
Wealth Status
 Poorest (Ref) 14.3 (13.64–14.88) 11.6 (10.9–12.1) −18.9 1 1  
 Poorer 12.2 (11.59–12.73) 8.2 (7.7–8.6) −32.8 0.7 (0.6–0.7) 0.9 (0.82–0.99) 0.03
 Middle 10.2 (9.65–10.69) 6.7 (6.2–7.1) −34.3 0.6 (0.5–0.6) 0.9 (0.82–1.02) 0.08
 Richer 7.9 (7.40–8.32) 5 (4.6–5.4) −36.7 0.4 (0.4–0.5) 0.8 (0.69–0.89) 0.00
 Richest 4.3 (39.46–41.10) 3.2 (2.9–3.5) −25.6 0.3 (0.2–0.3) 0.6 (0.55–0.74) 0.00
Religion
 Hindu 9.3 (9.08–9.58) 6.6 (6.4–6.8) −29.0 1 1  
 Non-Hindu 11 (10.39–11.51) 6.8 (6.3–7.2) −38.2 0.9 (0.8–0.9) 1.1 (1.00–1.19) 0.05
Place of residence
 Urban 6.8 (6.45–7.15) 4.8 (4.49–5.05) −29.4 1 1  
 Rural 10.9 (10.59–11.17) 7.6 (7.37–7.89) −30.3 1.4 (1.3–1.5) 0.9 (0.86–1.03) 0.19
Region
 North(Ref) 11.9 (11.21–12.61) 4.6 (4.1–5.0) −61.3 1 1  
 Central 9.1 (8.69–9.59) 7.4 (6.9–7.8) −18.7 1.7 (1.5–1.9) 1.1 (0.94–1.18) 0.28
 East 18.4 (17.74–18.98) 10 (9.5–10.5) −45.7 2.6 (2.3–2.8) 1.4 (1.25–1.59) 0.00
 North-east 12.6 (11.19–13.93) 5.6 (4.6–6.6) −55.6 1.5 (1.3–1.7) 1.2 (1.05–1.39) 0.01
 West 3.5 (3.12–3.86) 2.8 (2.5–3.1) −20.0 0.8 (0.7–0.9) 0.8 (0.70–0.99) 0.03
 South 3.2 (2.91–3.49) 6.6 (6.2–7) 106.3 1.4 (1.3–1.6) 1.0 (0.87–1.14) 1.00
Parity
 0(Ref) 9 (8.35–9.73) 4.8 (4.3–5.3) −46.7 1 1  
 1–2 8.1 (7.74–8.40) 5.6 (5.3–5.8) −30.9 1.0 (0.9–1.2) 1.0 (0.89–1.21) 0.57
 3+ 11 (10.65–11.33) 8.5 (8.2–8.9) −22.7 1.5 (1.4–1.7) 1.2 (1.04–1.44) 0.02
Economic empowerment status
 Not empower 5.9 (5.6–6.2) 1 1  
 Empower 7.3 (7.0–7.5) 1.3 (1.2–1.4) 1.1 (1.1–1.2) 0.01
Witnessing parental Violence
 No(Ref) 8 (7.79–8.25) 4.9 (4.7–5.1) −38.8 1 1  
 Yes 16.8 (16.09–17.43) 13.3 (12.7–13.8) −20.8 3.1 (2.9–3.3) 2.2 (2.0–2.4) 0.00
Duration of cohabitation in years
 0–4(Ref) 8.7 (8.14–9.16) 4.7 (4.3–5.0) −46.0 1 1  
 5–9 10.1 (9.62–10.66) 7.2 (6.7–7.7) −28.7 1.4 (1.2–1.5) 1.2 (1.06–1.41) 0.01
 10–14 10.7 (10.15–11.29) 7.4 (6.9–7.9) −30.8 1.5 (1.3–1.6) 1.3 (1.09–1.53) 0.00
 15–19 9.8 (9.20–10.34) 7.3 (6.8–7.8) −25.5 1.5 (1.4–1.7) 1.3 (1.06–1.57) 0.01
 20+ 9.2 (8.73–9.57) 6.8 (6.5–7.2) −26.1 1.3 (1.2–1.5) 1.1 (0.93–1.39) 0.20
Number of co wives
 None(Ref) 9.5 (9.30–9.76) 6.5 (6.3–6.7) −31.6 1 11  
 One and more 15.2 (13.11–17.37) 17.4 (15.0–19.7) 14.5 2.3 (1.9–2.8) 1.9 (1.55–2.28) 0.00
Age at first marriage
 Below 18(Ref) 11.7 (11.38–12.02) 7.8 (7.5–8.2) −33.3 1 1  
 More than 18 years 6.6 (6.32–6.92) 5.8 (5.5–6.0) −12.1 0.7 (0.6–0.7) 0.9 (0.87–1.01) 0.12
Partners controlling behaviours
 No(Ref) 5.6 (4.79–5.23) 2.2 (2.0–2.3) −60.7 1 1  
 Yes 16.6 (16.14–17.04) 11.9 (11.5–12.3) −28.3 5.5 (5.1–5.9) 4.3 (3.95–4.66) 0.00
Partner drink alcohol
 No(Ref) 7.6 (7.34–7.84) 4 (3.8–4.2) −47.4 1 1  
 Yes 14 (13.49–14.43) 13.4 (12.9–13.9) − 4.3 3.3 (3.1–3.6) 2.4 (2.21–2.54) 0.00