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Table 2 Percentage changes and correlates of physical IPV from 2005-06 to 2015-16 as per the National Family Health Survey (Rounds 3 and 4), India

From: Trends and correlates of intimate partner violence experienced by ever-married women of India: results from National Family Health Survey round III and IV

  NFHS-3 NFHS-4 % Relative change Unadjusted OR
(95% CI)
Adjusted OR
(95% CI) and p-value
Total 34.3 (33.9–34.6) 29.2 (28.5–29.8) −14.9    
Age
 15–19 (Ref) 24.6 (23.4–25.8) 17.7 (16.1–19.2) −28.0 1 1  
 20–24 31.9 (31.1–32.8) 24.8 (23.9–25.6) −22.3 1.4 (1.2–1.6) 1.2 (1.03–1.4) 0.02
 25–34 35.1 (34.3–35.9) 28.9 (28.1–29.7) − 17.7 1.5 (1.3–1.7) 1.0 (0.9–1.2) 0.77
 35+ 36 (35.5–36.5) 31.1 (30.6–31.5) −13.6 1.7 (1.5–1.9) 1.0 (0.8–1.2) 0.94
Respondents education
 No education (Ref) 44.3 (43.7–44.8) 39.5 (38.7–40.2) −10.8 1 1  
 Primary 36.3 (35.4–37.3) 35.6 (34.6–36.6) −1.9 0.8 (0.8–0.9) 1.0 (0.9–1.1) 0.82
 Secondary+ 20.9 (20.3–21.4) 21.5 (21.0–21.9) 2.9 0.4 (0.4–0.5) 0.8 (0.7–0.8) 0.00
Partner Education
 No education (Ref) 45.1 (44.3–45.8) 41.2 (40.3–42.1) −8.6 1 1  
 Primary 42.1 (41.1–43.0) 36.3 (35.3–37.3) −13.8 0.9 (0.8–0.9) 1.0 (0.9–1.1) 0.96
 Secondary+ 27 (26.5–27.4) 24.3 (23.9–24.7) −10.0 0.5 (0.5–0.5) 0.9 (0.8–0.9) 0.00
Wealth Status
 Poorest (Ref) 46.4 (45.5–47.3) 41.7 (40.8–42.7) −10.1 1 1  
 Poorer 43.2 (42.4–44.1) 36.4 (35.5–37.2) −15.7 0.7 (0.7–0.7) 0.9 (0.9–1.0) 0.07
 Middle 37.3 (36.5–38.2) 30.7 (29.9–31.5) −17.7 0.5 (0.5–0.6) 0.8 (0.7–0.9) 0.00
 Richer 29.8 (29.0–30.6) 25.2 (24.4–25.9) −15.4 0.4 (0.4–0.4) 0.7 (0.6–0.7) 0.00
 Richest 16.3 (15.6–16.9) 15.8 (15.2–16.4) −3.1 0.3 (0.2–0.3) 0.5 (0.5–0.6) 0.00
Religion
 Hindu 34 (33.6–34.5) 30.2 (29.8–30.6) −11.2 1 1  
 Non-Hindu 35.2 (34.4–36.1) 27.1 (26.3–27.9) −23.0 0.7 (0.7–0.7) 0.9 (0.9–0.9) 0.00
Place of residence
 Urban 27.8 (27.2–28.5) 23.5 (23.0–24.1) −15.5 1 1  
 Rural 37.1 (36.6–37.5) 32.2 (31.7–32.6) −13.2 1.4 (1.3–1.4) 0.9 (0.8–0.9) 0.00
Region
 North(Ref) 29.0 (28.0–30.0) 21 (20.06–21.8) −27.6 1 1  
 Central 40.2 (39.5–41.0) 33.2 (32.5–34.0) −17.4 2.1 (2.0–2.2) 1.3 (1.3–1.4) 0.00
 East 40.7 (39.9–41.5) 34.8 (34.0–35.5) −14.5 2.5 (2.4–2.7) 1.4 (1.3–1.5) 0.00
 North-east 33.1 (31.1–35.0) 23.7 (21.9–25.5) −28.4 1.4 (1.3–1.5) 1.1 (1.0–1.2) 0.01
 West 27.6 (26.7–28.5) 19.5 (18.7–20.2) −29.3 1.1 (1.0–1.1) 1.1 (1.0–1.2) 0.08
 South 28.3 (27.6–29.1) 31.7 (31.0–32.5) 12.0 1.9 (1.8–2.0) 1.4 (1.3–1.5) 0.00
Parity
 0(Ref) 21.4 (20.4–22.4) 16.1 (15.2–17.0) −24.8 1   
 1–2 27.5 (27.0–28.1) 25.9 (25.5–26.4) −5.8 1.5 (1.4–1.7) 1.5 (1.3–1.6) 0.00
 3+ 42.2 (41.7–42.8) 36.7 (36.1–37.3) −13.0 2.5 (2.3–2.7) 1.7 (1.6–1.9) 0.00
Economic empowerment status
 Not empower 25.7 (25.1–26.2) 1 1  
 Empower 32.0 (31.5–32.5) 1.4 (1.3–1.4) 1.1 (1.0–1.1) 0.00
Witnessing parental Violence
 No(Ref) 29.3 (28.9–29.7) 23.0 (22.6–23.3) −21.5 1   
 Yes 56.4 (55.5–57.2) 52.8 (51.9–53.6) −6.4 4.1 (3.9–4.3) 3.3 (3.2–3.5) 0.00
Duration of cohabitation in years
 0–4(Ref) 20.9 (20.2–21.7) 17.6 (16.9–18.3) −15.8 1 1  
 5–9 34.1 (33.3–34.9) 29.6 (28.7–30.4) − 13.2 1.7 (1.6–1.8) 1.4 (1.3–1.6) 0.00
 10–14 38.7 (37.8–39.6) 31.8 (30.9–32.7) −17.8 1.9 (1.8–2.1) 1.6 (1.4–1.7) 0.00
 15–19 37.9 (37.0–38.9) 32.4 (31.5–33.3) −14.5 2.0 (1.8–2.1) 1.5 (1.4–1.7) 0.00
 20+ 38.2 (37.5–38.9) 33.0 (32.4–33.7) −13.6 2.0 (1.9–2.1) 1.5 (1.4–1.7) 0.00
Number of co wives
 None(Ref) 34 (33.6–34.4) 28.8 (28.5–29.2) −15.3 1 1  
 One and more 48.6 (45.6–51.5) 51.5 (48.4–54.6) 6.0 1.9 (1.7–2.2) 1.6 (1.3–1.8) 0.00
Age at first marriage
 Below 18(Ref) 40.1 (39.6–40.6) 34.6 (34.1–35.2) −13.7 1   
 More than 18 years 25.7 (25.2–26.3) 25.1 (24.6–25.5) −2.3 0.6 (0.6–0.7) 0.9 (0.9–0.9) 0.00
Partners controlling behaviours
 No(Ref) 24.1 (23.6–24.5) 17.9 (17.5–18.3) −25.7 1 1  
 Yes 49.6 (49.0–50.2) 42.3 (41.7–42.9) −14.7 3.4 (3.3–3.6) 2.8 (2.7–2.9) 0.00
Partner drink alcohol
 No(Ref) 27 (26.6–27.4) 21.2 (20.8–21.5) −21.5 1 1  
 Yes 49.7 (49.0–50.3) 49.8 (49.1–50.5) 0.2 3.4 (3.3–3.5) 2.6 (2.5–2.7) 0.00