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Table 4 Baseline sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics of the NHANES 2009–2014 study sample according to sleep outcomes (N = 14,956)

From: Association between pesticide exposure and sleep health among a representative sample of US adults: evidence from NHANES 2009–2014

  N Insufficient Sleepa (%) Trouble Sleeping (%)
Sex
Male 7382 37.4 22.9
Female 7574 34.9 31.9
p   0.01 <.0001
Age group
  < 30 years 2558 34.4 16.8
30–39 years 2454 38.2 22.7
40–49 years 2531 42.9 30.0
50–59 years 2420 38.2 35.3
  ≥ 60 years 1444 29.9 30.9
p   <.0001 <.0001
Race/ethnicity
Hispanic 3510 38.6 18.0
NH White 6590 33.0 30.7
NH Black 3175 51.5 24.8
Other 1681 38.2 19.5
p   <.0001 <.0001
BMI(kg/m2)
Underweight (BMI < 18.5) 385 38.9 25.7
Normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.9) 4114 32.5 24.2
Overweight (BMI 25.0–29.9) 1130 34.7 25.5
Obese (BMI ≥ 30) 1733 40.1 32.0
p   <.0001 <.0001
Smoking Behavior
Never Smoker 8263 33.7 22.5
Current Smoker 3101 46.5 34.2
Former smoker 1088 33.4 33.6
p   <.0001 <.0001
Marital status
Never married 2874 36.8 22.9
Married/living with partner 8717 34.5 25.9
Separated, divorced, widowed 1154 40.9 37.6
p   <.0001 <.0001
Educational Attainment
  < 9 years 1406 35.1 23.1
9–11 years 2169 40.5 27.0
12 years 3335 40.1 30.1
  > 12 years 8046 34.1 27.0
p   <.0001 0.0033
Moderate Physical Activity
None 8851 39.0 28.0
Any 6105 32.7 26.9
p   <.0001 0.27
Poverty-Income Ratio (PIR)
No Poverty (PIR ≥ 1.0) 10740 35.0 27.3
Any Poverty (PIR < 1.0) 4216 40.5 28.5
p   <.0001 0.31
Household Food Insecurity (HFI)
None 10324 33.9 26.0
Any 4632 43.5 32.3
p   <.0001 <.0001
  1. a Indicates percentage of sample with insufficient sleep duration based on AASM recommendations for adults ≥20 years
  2. ABR: N sample size; BMI body mass index; NH Non-Hispanic; PIR poverty-income ratio; HFI household food insecurity
  3. All p values obtained from the Rao-Scott χ2 test