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Table 3 Baseline sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics of the NHANES 2009–2014 study sample according to urinary pesticide metabolites (N = 4,478)

From: Association between pesticide exposure and sleep health among a representative sample of US adults: evidence from NHANES 2009–2014

  N 2,4-D
GM (SE) (u/mL)
3-PBA
GM (SE) (u/mL)
pNP
GM (SE) (u/mL)
Overall 4478 0.30 (0.01) 0.56 (0.02) 0.54 (0.02)
Sex
Male 2190 0.34 (0.01) 0.57 (0.03) 0.60 (0.02)
Female 2288 0.28 (0.01) 0.54 (0.02) 0.50 (0.02)
p   0.01 0.12 0.45
Age group
  < 30 years 766 0.29 (0.01) 0.56 (0.04) 0.60 (0.03)
30–39 years 731 0.27 (0.01) 0.54 (0.03) 0.55 (0.03)
40–49 years 774 0.30 (0.02) 0.55 (0.04) 0.54 (0.03)
50–59 years 751 0.30 (0.01) 0.57 (0.04) 0.48 (0.03)
  ≥ 60 years 1456 0.35 (0.01) 0.56 (0.03) 0.55 (0.03)
p   0.01 0.14 0.21
Race/ethnicity
Hispanic 1052 0.26 (0.01) 0.52 (0.03) 0.57 (0.03)
NH White 2015 0.32 (0.01) 0.55 (0.02) 0.52 (0.02)
NH Black 917 0.30 (0.01) 0.66 (0.04) 0.63 (0.04)
Other 494 0.27 (0.01) 0.55 (0.06) 0.60 (0.03)
p   0.94 0.20 0.12
BMI (kg/m2)
Underweight (BMI < 18.5) 101 0.30 (0.04) 0.62 (0.12) 0.56 (0.08)
Normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.9) 1229 0.28 (0.01) 0.51 (0.03) 0.53 (0.02)
Overweight (BMI 25.0–29.9) 1446 0.31 (0.01) 0.55 (0.03) 0.53 (0.02)
Obese (BMI ≥ 30) 1702 0.33 (0.01) 0.60 (0.02) 0.56 (0.02)
p   0.13 0.30 0.22
Smoking Behavior
Never Smoker 2506 0.31 (0.01) 0.53 (0.02) 0.51 (0.02)
Current Smoker 914 0.25 (0.01) 0.57 (0.03) 0.60 (0.03)
Former smoker 1058 0.34 (0.02) 0.62 (0.04) 0.58 (0.03)
p   0.82 0.04 0.82
Marital status
Never married 875 0.28 (0.01) 0.50 (0.03) 0.58 (0.03)
Married/living with partner 2644 0.32 (0.01) 0.55 (0.02) 0.53 (0.02)
Separated, divorced, widowed 959 0.29 (0.01) 0.65 (0.04) 0.55 (0.03)
p   0.70 0.003 0.55
Educational Attainment
  < 9 years 409 0.32 (0.02) 0.56 (0.05) 0.60 (0.04)
9–11 years 633 0.27 (0.01) 0.56 (0.04) 0.55 (0.02)
12 years 976 0.28 (0.01) 0.53 (0.03) 0.50 (0.02)
  > 12 years 2460 0.32 (0.01) 0.56 (0.02) 0.55 (0.02)
p   0.86 0.49 0.52
Moderate Physical Activity
None 2592 0.30 (0.01) 0.54 (0.02) 0.54 (0.02)
Any 1886 0.31 (0.01) 0.58 (0.03) 0.55 (0.02)
p   0.45 0.51 0.07
Poverty-Income Ratio (PIR)
No Poverty (PIR ≥ 1.0) 3233 0.31 (0.01) 0.55 (0.02) 0.53 (0.02)
Any Poverty (PIR < 1.0) 1245 0.28 (0.01) 0.60 (0.0) 0.60 (0.02)
p   0.06 0.94 0.88
Household Food Insecurity (HFI)
None 3064 0.31 (0.01) 0.54 (0.02) 0.53 (0.02)
Any 1414 0.28 (0.01) 0.62 (0.04) 0.58 (0.02)
p   0.02 0.17 0.20
  1. ABR: N Sample size; GM Geometric Mean; SE Standard Error; 2,4-D 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; 3-PBA 3-phenoxybenzoic acid; pNP para-Nitrophenol; NH Non-Hispanic; BMI body-mass index; HFI household food insecurity; PIR poverty-income ratio; All p values obtained from the Rao-Scott χ2 test