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Table 1 Baseline sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics of the NHANES 2009–2014 study sample according to sleep outcomes (N = 4,478)

From: Association between pesticide exposure and sleep health among a representative sample of US adults: evidence from NHANES 2009–2014

  N Insufficient Sleepa (%) Trouble Sleeping (%)
Sex
Male 2190 35.9 24.5
Female 2288 33.7 31.0
p   0.22 <.0001
Age group
  < 30 years 766 33.1 14.9
30–39 years 731 32.6 20.4
40–49 years 774 41.6 31.2
50–59 years 751 39.4 34.2
  ≥ 60 years 1456 29.1 29.7
p   <.0001 <.0001
Race/ethnicity
Hispanic 1052 37.2 17.3
NH White 2015 31.4 29.4
NH Black 917 50.1 23.8
Other 494 38.8 18.3
p   <.0001 <.0001
BMI (kg/m2)
Underweight (BMI < 18.5) 101 41.6 26.3
Normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.9) 1229 31.1 23.4
Overweight (BMI 25.0–29.9) 1446 33.0 26.5
Obese (BMI ≥ 30) 1702 38.5 28.5
p   0.01 0.13
Smoking Behavior
Never Smoker 2506 32.4 21.7
Current Smoker 914 42.2 31.4
Former smoker 1058 34.1 33.4
p   0.0003 <.0001
Marital status
Never married 875 33.4 24.1
Married/living with partner 2644 33.9 24.9
Separated, divorced, widowed 959 39.0 33.8
p   0.15 <.0001
Educational Attainment
  < 9 years 409 37.3 18.5
9–11 years 633 40.7 28.9
12 years 976 41.0 30.5
  > 12 years 2460 31.4 25.2
p   <.0001 0.0017
Moderate Physical Activity
None 2592 38.3 26.6
Any 1886 30.6 26.1
p   0.0006 0.78
Poverty-Income Ratio (PIR)
No Poverty (PIR ≥ 1.0) 3233 33.5 26.0
Any Poverty (PIR < 1.0) 1245 39.8 27.9
p   0.0006 0.32
Household Food Insecurity (HFI)
None 3064 32.6 25.4
Any 1414 41.6 29.4
p   <.0001 0.01
  1. a Indicates percentage of sample with insufficient sleep duration based on AASM recommendations for adults ≥ 20 years
  2. ABR: N sample size; BMI body-mass index; NH Non-Hispanic; PIR poverty-income ratio; HFI household food insecurity
  3. All p values obtained from the Rao-Scott χ2 test