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Table 5 Results of the multiple regression analyses with emotional, behavioral and cognitive public caregiver stigma as outcomes, stratified by caregiver’s gender, with caregiver’s working status as main independent variables and adjusted for the sociodemographic background of the participants

From: Are informal family caregivers stigmatized differently based on their gender or employment status?: a German study on public stigma towards informal long-term caregivers of older individuals

Outcome variables Devaluing feelings Appreciative feelings Regretful and anxious feelings Social distance Accusing statements Devaluing statements Appreciative statements
female male female male female male female male female male female male female male
Models (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14)
Caregiver’s working status (Ref. no, non-working) −0.04 −0.05 0.09 0.10 0.08 0.04 −0.11+ −0.10+ −0.02 −0.02 −0.00 0.00 0.14** 0.07
  (0.04) (0.04) (0.07) (0.07) (0.08) (0.08) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.05) (0.06)
Constant 1.93*** 1.58*** 3.11*** 3.29*** 3.22*** 3.07*** 2.18*** 2.08*** 2.07*** 1.88*** 2.31*** 1.95*** 3.97*** 4.11***
  (0.10) (0.10) (0.16) (0.17) (0.19) (0.22) (0.14) (0.16) (0.14) (0.15) (0.15) (0.16) (0.14) (0.14)
Observations 525 503 522 505 526 505 527 506 524 503 527 505 528 505
R2 0.095 0.034 0.091 0.042 0.067 0.061 0.028 0.023 0.012 0.020 0.045 0.039 0.083 0.068
  1. Unstandardized regression coefficients and robust standard errors in parentheses. Emotional reactions to informal caregiving (devaluing feelings, appreciative feelings, regretful and anxious feelings) Range 1–5, higher scores indicating higher agreement with the emotions; behavioral reactions to informal caregiving (social distance) Range 1–5, higher scores indicating higher social distance; cognitive reactions to informal caregiving (accusing statements, devaluing statements, appreciative statements) Range 1–5, higher scores indicating higher agreement with the statements. Sociodemographic information on the participants was included as covariates (age, gender, education, and marital status). Level of significance: *** p < 0.001, ** p < 0.01, * p < 0.05, + p < 0.10