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Table 4 The distribution of household disorganization and neighborhood noise according to cohort characteristics

From: A mixed methods analysis of environmental and household chaos: considerations for early-childhood obesity research

  Household Disorganization Neighborhood Noise
(Range: 0–7.3) (Range: 0–4)
  Mean SD P Value Mean SD P Value
Overall 2.1 (1.8) 1.6 (1.1)
Child Characteristics
Gestational Age at Birth
37–41 Completed Weeks (term) 2.0 (1.8) 0.14 1.5 (1.1) 0.43
< 37 Completed Weeks (preterm) 2.3 (1.7)   1.6 (1.0)  
Sex
Boy 2.1 (1.7) 0.97 1.6 (1.1) 0.90
Girl 2.1 (1.8)   1.6 (1.1)  
Primary Respondent Characteristics
Age (years) at enrollment
18 to < 21 3.4 (1.7) < 0.001 2.4 (0.9) 0.02
21 to < 25 2.9 (1.7)   2.0 (1.1)  
25 to < 30 2.3 (1.9)   1.4 (1.0)  
30 to < 35 1.7 (1.6)   1.5 (1.1)  
35 to < 40 1.6 (1.8)   1.5 (1.1)  
40 or older 2.2 (1.7)   1.3 (0.9)  
Race/Ethnicity
Non-Hispanic white 1.5 (1.6) < 0.001 1.4 (1.1) 0.01
Non-Hispanic Black 2.8 (1.8)   1.8 (1.1)  
Non-Hispanic other (includes multiple races) 2.5 (1.7)   1.7 (0.7)  
Hispanic 1.6 (1.6)   1.2 (0.9)  
Educational Attainment
High school diploma/GED or less 2.9 (1.6) < 0.001 2.1 (1.0) < 0.001
Some college 2.7 (1.9)   1.5 (1.1)  
Bachelor’s degree 1.2 (1.1)   1.5 (1.1)  
Post-graduate degree 1.0 (1.3)   1.3 (1.0)  
Marital Status
Single/Never Married 2.9 (1.8) < 0.001 1.8 (1.1) 0.02
Married 1.5 (1.6)   1.4 (1.1)  
Living with Partner 2.7 (1.7)   1.8 (1.0)  
Other 2.8 (1.7)   1.5 (1.1)  
Endorsed Symptoms of Depression
No 2.0 (1.8) 0.07 1.6 (1.1) 0.45
Yes 2.7 (1.7)   1.7 (1.2)  
Household Characteristics
 Housing Type
  Single Family Home 1.7 (1.6) < 0.001 1.4 (1.1) < 0.001
  Other 2.8 (1.8)   1.9 (1.0)  
 Number of Household Members
  2 members 2.7 (1.9) < 0.001 1.2 (0.8) 0.26
  3 members 1.5 (1.5)   1.7 (1.0)  
  4 members 1.8 (1.5)   1.5 (1.1)  
  5 or more members 2.8 (1.9)   1.5 (1.1)  
 Food Insecurity
  Food Secure 1.9 (1.7) < 0.001 1.5 (1.1) 0.05
  Food Insecure 2.8 (1.7)   1.9 (1.1)  
 Annual Household Income
   < $20 thousand 3.0 (1.8) < 0.001 2.0 (1.1) < 0.001
  $20 to < $50 thousand 2.5 (1.9)   1.6 (1.0)  
  $50 to < $90 thousand 1.4 (1.1)   1.2 (1.0)  
  $90 thousand or more 1.1 (1.3)   1.4 (1.1)  
  1. Note: Participant characteristics were predominately derived from caregivers surveys collected at the 18-month (enrollment) assessment for Play & Grow. Descriptions of household disorganization and neighborhood noise were derived from direct observations conducted in family homes when children were approximately 24-months of age. Higher scores of household disorganization and neighborhood noise are indicative of higher levels of chaos; SD = standard deviation; P values were calculated using one-way ANOVA; Food insecurity was assessed using the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food and Nutrition Service’s guidelines for measuring food security. We coded families as having food insecurity if they indicated experiencing any level food insecurity in the 12-months prior to them completing our surveys. Depression symptomology was determined using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Survey, with a score ≥ 16 indicated symptoms of depression