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Table 1 Characteristics of selected study articles

From: High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among the South Asian adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Authors Year Country Study area (urban or rural) Study design Age Gender Socio economic status Vitamin D estimation method Sample size (N) Average level of vitamin D
(ng /mL)
Standard deviation (S.D)
Arya et al. [32] 2003 India Urban Hospital – CS 24–53 y Both NM RIA 92 12.3 10.9
Malhotra et al. [33] 2009 India NM Hospital – RCT 18 y or above Female NM RIA 100 4.7 3.4
Harinarayan et al. [34] 2011 India Urban Hospital – CS Mean age 38 y Female NM RIA 55 15.7 10.23
Agrawal et al. [35] 2013 India NM Hospital – CS 50 y or above Male NM RIA 200 18.96 10.23
Vupputuri et al. [36] 2006 India Urban Community – CS Mean age 43.3 y Both Middle RIA 105 9.8 6
Suryanarayanaet al [37] 2018 India Urban Community – CS 60 y or above Both Both RIA 298 19.3 9.32
Shivane et al. [38] 2011 India Urban Community – CS 25–35 y Both NM RIA 1137 17.4 9.1
Harinarayan et al. [39] 2006 India Both Community – CS Mean age 44.5 y Both Both RIA 1146 21.135 0.8
Shukla et al. [40] 2016 India NM Hospital – CS More than 20 y Both NM ECLIA 26,273 21.44 14.06
Sanket et al. [41] 2016 India NM Hospital – CC 18–65 y Both NM CLIA 81 26.25 NM
Karoli et al. [42] 2014 India Both Hospital – CS 18–60 y Both Lower ECLIA 100 30.6 10.8
Laway et al. [43] 2014 India NM Hospital – CC More than 25 y Both NM RIA 102 28.46 18.89
Gupta et al. [44] 2014 India NM Hospital – CC 35 y or more Both NM CLIA 70 26.32 14.12
Bhatt et al. [45] 2014 India Urban Community – CS 18–60 y Both Both RIA 137 18.9 6.7
Marwaha et al. [46] 2011 India Urban Community – CS More than 50 y Both NM RIA 1346 9.85 7.73
Goswami et al. [47] 2009 India NM Community – CS 15–60 y Both NM RIA 642 7 4.08
Zargar et al. [48] 2007 India Both Community – CS 18–40 y Both NM RIA 92 10.286 8.215
Harinarayan et al. [49] 2004 India Both Community – CS Mean age 45 y Both NM RIA 316 16.76 5.61
Sofi et al. [50] 2017 India Both Hospital – CS 20–49 y Female Both CLIA 224 10.55 7.65
Beloyartseva et al. [51] 2012 India Urban Community – CS Mean age 42.7y Both NM RIA 2119 14.35 10.62
Singh et al. [52] 2018 India Both Hospital – CS 20–50 y Female NM CLIA 72 22.91 16.18
Shetty et al. [53] 2014 India Urban Community – CS 50 y or above Male NM CLIA 252 20.4 8.3
Kajale et al. [54] 2015 India Urban Hospital – CS Mean age 27.7 y Female Both ELISA 300 15.76 8.8
Goswami et al. [55] 2008 India Rural Community – CS Mean age 42.8 y Both NM RIA 57 14.56 9
Kiran et al. [56] 2014 India Rural Community – CS 20–72 y Both Both CMIA 81 15.49 7.58
Kumar et al. [57] 2017 India NM Hospital – CC Mean age 48.2y Both NM CLIA 150 30.6 10.2
Goswami et al. [58] 2016 India Urban Community – CS Mean age 25–32 y Male NM CLIA 194 19.66 6.17
Meena et al. [59] 2016 India Urban Hospital – CS NM Female Lower RIA 100 6.3 4.6
Singh et al. [60] 2011 India NM Hospital – CS Mean age 28 y Male NM RIA 80 9.1 6.54
Garg et al. [61] 2013 India Urban Community - CS 50 y or above Both NM RIA 1346 9.8 7.6
Harinarayan et al. [62] 2011 India Urban Hospital – CS Mean age 53 y Female NM RIA 136 17.7 11.08
Paul et al. [63] 2008 India Urban Community - CS 50 y or above Female NM RIA 150 20.85 8.63
Srimani et al. [64] 2017 India Rural Community - CS 45–70 y Female NM EIA 222 20 NM
Harinarayan et al. [65] 2004 India NM Community - CS Mean age 54 y Female NM RIA 164 14.6 7
Agarwal et al. [66] 2013 India Urban Hospital - RCT 40–73 y Female High RIA 92 13.43 8.67
Mitra et al. [67] 2016 India NM Hospital – CS 45–52 y Female NM CLIA 64 19.5 18.92
Agarwal et al. [68] 2014 India NM Hospital – CS Mean age 56.3 y Female NM CK 71 12.73 7.63
Dixit et al. [69] 2018 India NM Hospital – CS Mean age 56.4 y Female NM RIA 334 12.95 8.08
Kadam et al. [70] 2010 India Urban Hospital – CS 40–75 y Female Both RIA 172 10.22 5.68
Mahmood et al. [71] 2017 Bangladesh Both Community - CC 20–40 y Female Lower CMIA 80 18.3 2.5
Islam et al. [72] 2007 Bangladesh Urban Community - CS 18–36 y Female Lower EIA 200 14.68 4.48
Islam et al. [73] 2006 Bangladesh Urban Community - CS 18–60 y Female NM RIA 66 12.3 4.52
Islam et al. [74] 2002 Bangladesh Both Community - CS 16–40 y Female Both RIA 189 16.04 NM
Acherjya et al. [75] 2019 Bangladesh Both Hospital – CS 10–70 y Both NM RAIA 160 18.6 6.59
Mubashir et al. [76] 2017 Pakistan NM Hospital – CC 20–70 y Both NM AMK 345 16.1 11.7
Junaid et al. [77] 2016 Pakistan NM Hospital – CC 15–56 y Both Both ELISA 112 17.32 NM
Roomi et al. [78] 2015 Pakistan NM Hospital – CS 18–40 y Both Both EIA 88 8.44 0.49
Junaid et al. [79] 2015 Pakistan NM Community - CS 15–50 y Female Both EIA 215 16.6 13.8
Sheikh et al. [80] 2012 Pakistan Urban Community - CS 30–80 y Both Both RIA 300 18.8 NM
Mehboobali et al. [81] 2015 Pakistan NM Community - CS 18–60 y Both Lower ECLIA 858 20.63 7.25
Mansoor et al. [82] 2010 Pakistan Urban Hospital – CS 20–75 y Both NM RIA 123 16.44 3.78
Mustafa et al. [83] 2018 Pakistan Both Hospital – CS 18–37 y Female Both CMIA 67 8.348 3.076
Rehman et al. [28] 2018 Pakistan NM Hospital – CS 25–55 y Male NM NM 313 30.426 5.83
Khan et al. [84] 2019 Pakistan Urban Hospital – CS Median age 20 y Both NM CLIA 167 12.1 8.81
Nadeem et al. [29] 2018 Pakistan NM Community - CS 19–25 y Both NM NM 221 9.8 8.7
Iqbal et al. [85] 2019 Pakistan NM Hospital – CS 19–69 y Both Both CK 226 15 10.7
Mahmood et al. [86] 2009 Pakistan NM Hospital – CS 16–62 y Both NM ECLIA 244 15.65 9.91
Afsar et al. [30] 2014 Pakistan NM Hospital – CS 16–80 y Both NM NM 376 22.11 8.56
Kumar et al. [31] 2016 Pakistan NM Hospital – CS Mean age 40.2 y Both NM NM 160 32 6.6
Sharif et al. [87] 2013 Pakistan NM Hospital – CC 20–40 y Female Both ELISA 60 11.04 8.44
Khan et al. [88] 2012 Pakistan Both Community - CS 18 y or above Female Both ECLIA 305 8.708 8.664
Dar et al. [89] 2012 Pakistan Urban Community - CS 18–48 y Female NM ECLIA 174 15.32 6.16
Meyer et al. [90] 2007 Sri Lanka Urban Community - CS 30–60 y Both NM RIA 196 21.68 NM
Haugen et al. [91] 2016 Nepal Urban Community - CS 17–44 y Female NM LCMS 500 18.96 6.56
Sherchand et al. [92] 2018 Nepal NM Hospital – CS 18 y or above Both NM CLIA 300 19 NM
  1. Abbreviations: RCT Randomized Control Trial, CC Case Control, CS Cross Sectional, RIA Radio Immune assay, LCMS Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy, CLIA Chemiluminiscence immunoassay, CMIA Chemiluminiscent micro particle immune assay, EIA Enzyme Immunoassay, RAIA Random access Immunoassay, AMK Automated Kit, ELISA Enzyme Linked Immune Sorbent Assay, ECLIA Electrochemiluminiscence Immunoassay, Commercial Kits CK, NM Not Mention, y Year