# Table 5 Multigroup analysis statistical tests

Construct H1 H2 H3 H4 H5 H6 H7 H8 H9 H10
Sex
Male (N = 439) 0.021 0.226** 0.310* 0.263* 0.320* 0.263* 0.103 0.100 0.052 0.046
Female (N = 384) −0.034 0.299* 0.153** 0.154** 0.227** 0.161** 0.127** 0.082 0.123** −0.011
Diff. 0.055 −0.073 0.157 0.110 0.093 0.102 −0.024 0.018 −0.071 0.567
vPLS-MGAp-value 0.635 0.505 0.085 0.215 0.296 0.195 0.737 0.806 0.317 0.527
Ages
Elder/>46 (N = 281) −0.013 0.281** 0.357* 0.191** 0.230** 0.104 0.117 0.036 0.088 0.655
Younger/<45 (N = 542) −0.002 0.263* 0.176* 0.221* 0.308* 0.283* 0.127** 0.111** 0.063 −0.121
Diff. −0.010 0.018 0.181 −0.029 −0.077 − 0.178 −0.009 − 0.074 0.025 0.077
PLS-MGA p-value 0.949 0.872 0.056 0.724 0.375 0.020 0.995 0.459 0.668 0.390
Residential areas
Urban (N = 529) −0.033 0.262* 0.240* 0.164** 0.215* 0.177** 0.059 0.084 0.082 0.060
Rural (N = 294) 0.043 0.282** 0.229** 0.299* 0.404* 0.305* 0.234** 0.066 0.043 −0.087
Diff. −0.076 −0.019 0.010 −0.136 − 0.188 −0.127 − 0.174 0.017 0.038 0.147
PLS-MGAp-value 0.623 0.858 0.909 0.135 0.028 0.108 0.014 0.819 0.562 0.082
1. H1…H10: Hypotheses refer (same as) to the structural model of the extended TPB
2. * and **: Path coefficient each sub-group with significance level, * p < 0.001, ** p < 0.05
3. Diff: Path Coefficient Differences between sub-group in the PLS-MGA.
4. Bold font: PLS-MGA p-value below 5% and above 95% indicate a significant difference.