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Table 1 Characteristics of Participants in the Sample (N = 2902), Men (n = 1146) and Women (n = 1756)

From: Association of Daytime Napping with chronic diseases among Tibetan people in China: a cross-sectional study

  Full sample (N = 2902)
n (%)
Men (n = 1146)
n (%)
Women (n = 1756)
n (%)
Dependent variable
 Any conditions 1707 (58.8) 702 (61.3) 1005 (57.2)
 Obesity 587 (20.2) 211 (18.4) 376 (21.4)
vHypertension 1182 (40.7) 504 (44.0) 678 (38.6)
 Diabetes 626 (21.6) 261 (22.8) 365 (20.8)
Independent variable of interest
 Daytime napping
  0 min/day 2096 (72.2) 765 (66.8) 1331 (75.8)
  1–59 min/day 457 (15.8) 205 (17.9) 252 (14.4)
   ≥ 60 min/day 349 (12.0) 176 (15.4) 173 (9.9)
  Demographics
  Age (≥60) 845 (29.1) 351 (30.6) 494 (28.1)
  Marital status (cohabited) 2554 (88.0) 1067 (93.1) 1487 (84.7)
Socioeconomic gradient
Education
  No formal education 1791 (61.7) 623 (54.4) 1168 (66.5)
  Elementary school 858 (29.6) 391 (34.1) 467 (26.6)
  Middle school and above 253 (8.7) 132 (11.5) 121 (6.9)
 Annual household income
   ≤ 12,000 CNY 683 (23.5) 227 (19.8) 456 (26.0)
  12,000–19,999 CNY 769 (26.5) 297 (25.9) 472 (26.9)
  20,000–59,999 CNY 946 (32.6) 395 (34.5) 551 (31.4)
   ≥ 60,000 CNY 503 (17.3) 227 (19.8) 276 (15.7)
  Employed 1976 (68.1) 590 (51.5) 1386 (78.9)
Health behaviors
 Smoking
  Never 2254 (77.7) 611 (53.3) 1643 (93.6)
  Current 456 (15.7) 363 (31.7) 93 (5.3)
  Ever 192 (6.6) 172 (15.0) 20 (1.1)
 Alcohol consumption
  No 2117 (73.0) 724 (63.2) 1393 (79.3)
  Occasionally (less than once a week) 552 (19.0) 241 (21.0) 311 (17.7)
  Frequently (at least once a week) 233 (8.0) 181 (15.8) 52 (3.0)
  Physical activity (high, > 17.5 MET-h/day) 1448 (50.0) 513 (44.8) 935 (53.3)
 Nighttime sleep (per night)
   < 7 h 194 (6.7) 64 (5.6) 130 (7.4)
  7 h−8 h 1912 (65.9) 742 (64.8) 1170 (66.6)
  > 8 h 790 (27.2) 338 (29.5) 452 (25.7)
  Quality of nighttime sleep (poor) 1180 (40.7) 364 (31.8) 816 (46.5)
Health-related variable
 Body Mass Index
  Normal 621 (21.4) 258 (22.5) 363 (20.7)
  Underweight 34 (1.2) 7 (0.6) 27 (1.5)
  Overweight 1660 (57.2) 670 (58.5) 990 (56.4)
  Obesity 587 (20.2) 211 (18.4) 376 (21.4)
  1. Abbreviations: CNY, Chinese Yuan Renminbi; MET, Metabolic Equivalent for Task