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Table 3 Potential drivers of HIV stigma

From: HIV stigma in the teaching hospitals in Sana’a, Yemen: a conflict and low-resource setting

Fear of HIV infection (n = 320) Very much Much A little Too little Not worried
The extent of a professional’s worry when providing care for PLHIV while:
 Measuring temperature 25 (8%) 27 (8%) 92 (29%) 52 (16%) 124 (39%)
 Touching personal things 87 (27%) 53 (17%) 78 (24%) 36 (11%) 66 (21%)
 Bandaging a wound 138 (43%) 50 (16% 54 (17% 39 (12%) 39 (12%)
 Drawing blood sample 141 (44%) 59 (18% 50 (16%) 32 (10%) 38 (12%)
Stigmatizing attitudes towards PLHIV Strongly agree Agree I don’t know Disagree Strongly disagree
HIV is a punishment (n = 315) 23 (7%) 18 (6%) 36 (11%) 116 (37%) 122 (39%)
PLHIV are responsible for their infection (n = 318) 49 (15.5%) 61 (19%) 33 (10.5%) 120 (38%) 55 (17%)
Most PLHIV do not care if they infect other people (n = 312) 23 (7%) 71 (23% 120 (38%) 65 (21%) 33 (11%)
Women living with HIV should not be allowed to have babies. (n = 313) 104 (33%) 64 (20.5%) 42 (13.5%) 71 (23%) 32 (10%)
Patients should be tested for HIV prior to surgical procedures even without prior knowledge or consent (n = 316) 174 (55%) 70 (22%) 12 (4%) 47 (15%) 13 (4%)
HIV services should be provided in separate centres 173 (54%) 82 (25.5%) 18 (5.5%) 41 (13%) 6 (2%)
It is better to avoid working alongside a co-worker living with HIV (n = 314) 28 (9%) 52 (16.5%) 34 (11%) 146 (46.5%) 54 (17%)
PLHIV should not work in health care provision 83 (26%) 66 (21%) 33 (10%) 96 (30%) 42 (13%)
Health facility environment and policies Strongly agree Agree I don’t know Disagree Strongly disagree
There are adequate supplies in my health facility that reduce my risk of becoming infected with HIV 6 (2%) 15 (4%) 25 (8%) 102 (32%) 172 (54%)
The international HIV infection control guidelines are not adequate 141 (44%) 97 (30%) 60 (19%) 14 (4.5%) 8 (2.5%)
  Yes Not sure No
I will get in trouble at work if I discriminate against patients living with HIV. (n = 310) 170 (55%) 62 (20%) 78 (25%)