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Table 1 The characteristics of participants based on gender

From: Contribution of vitamin D status as a determinant of cardiometabolic risk factors: a structural equation model, National Food and Nutrition Surveillance

Variables Men (n = 424) Women (n = 486) p value*
Age, (years) 39.3 ± 7.9 38.6 ± 8.3 0.220
Body mass index, (kg/m2) 26.7 ± 4.1 27.8 ± 4.8 < 0.001
Sun exposure duration, n (%)
 No exposure 45 (10.6) 115 (23.7) < 0.001
 10–60 min 164 (38.7) 279 (57.4)
 60–120 min 71 (16.7) 60 (12.3)
 More than 120 min 144 (34.0) 32 (6.6)
Time of day (%)
 7–10 62 (14.6) 123 (25.3) < 0.001
 10–15 306 (72.2) 304 (62.6)
 15–17 56 (13.2) 59 (12.1)
Sunscreen use (%)
 Never 383 (90.3) 199 (40.9) < 0.001
 Sometimes 25 (5.9) 120 (24.7)
 Often 4 (0.9) 55 (11.3)
 Always 12 (2.8) 112 (23.0)
25-hydroxy vitamin D (nmol/L) 27.3 ± 15.2 25.9 ± 17.5 0.206
Triglyceride (mg/dL) 148.9 ± 83.6 114.8 ± 61.2 < 0.001
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 169.3 ± 35.0 167.7 ± 33.1 0.485
LDL (mg/dL) 97.9 ± 28.5 95.3 ± 27.8 0.158
HDL (mg/dL) 41.7 ± 12.3 49.5 ± 11.6 < 0.001
  1. Values are mean ± SD or number (%), p-values for between-group differences were assessed using t.test or chi-square test, as appropriate