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Table 3 Baseline characteristics of sample population, by grade

From: The potential of school-based WASH programming to support children as agents of change in rural Zambian households

Questions Total
(N = 480)
Grade 1
(N = 254)
Grade 4
(N = 226)
Significance level of comparisons between grades
Percent of interviewed students who were female 51% 48% 54% p = 0.26
Mean (SD) age of students 9.7 (2.3) 7.9 (1.8) 11.2 (1.4) p <  0.001
Number of caregivers interviewed 480 254 226 p = 0.08
% female caregivers interviewed 78% 82% 74% p = 0.05
Mean (SD) age of caregivers 38.0 (10.1) 35.8 (9.7) 40.4 (10.0) p <  0.001
  1. Tests of significance conducted between grade 1 and grade 4 respondents with student t-tests for continuous variables and chi-squared tests for binary variables