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Table 2 The MMR Due to Direct and Indirect Obstetric Causes in Jinan during 1991–2020

From: Trends, causes and solutions of maternal mortality in Jinan, China: the epidemiology of the MMR in 1991–2020

Year Direct Obstetric Causes* Indirect Obstetric Causes*
n MMR n MMR
1991 17 35.67 4 8.39
1992 14 35.60 3 7.63
1993 8 19.31 2 4.83
1994 7 15.47 1 2.21
1995 10 20.49 3 6.15
1996 8 15.05 3 5.64
1997 11 18.98 5 8.63
1998 7 12.69 4 7.25
1999 12 22.86 6 11.43
2000 9 16.18 3 5.39
2001 10 19.38 2 3.88
2002 9 16.06 4 7.14
2003 7 10.28 3 4.40
2004 11 18.34 6 10.01
2005 9 16.13 4 7.17
2006 6 10.93 3 5.47
2007 9 15.65 6 10.43
2008 4 6.56 5 8.20
2009 5 8.52 4 6.82
2010 2 3.02 5 7.55
2011 2 3.08 5 7.69
2012 5 7.74 3 4.64
2013 6 9.28 3 4.64
2014 3 4.33 7 10.09
2015 1 1.48 4 5.93
2016 2 2.58 8 10.34
2017 2 2.47 3 3.70
2018 3 3.74 5 6.24
2019 3 3.73 3 3.73
2020 1 1.49 3 4.46
  1. Notes
  2. n: Number of maternal deaths
  3. MMR:Maternal Mortality Ratio (per 100,000 live births)
  4. *: Cochran-Armitage trend (CAT) P < 0.05