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Table 6 Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis showing the predictors of willingness to pay for a COVID-19 vaccine

From: Population preferences and attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccination: a cross-sectional study from Pakistan

Variable Willing to Pay Unadjusted Adjusted
No Yes COR (95%CI) P aOR (95%CI) P
Age
  < 20 78 (31.2) 172 (68.8) 1.00    
 21–30 81 (26.1) 229 (73.9) 1.28 (0.89–1.85) 0.286   
 31–40 12 (33.3) 24 (66.7) 0.91 (0.43–1.91) 0.797   
 41–50 7 (38.9) 11 (61.1) 0.71 (0.27–1.90). 0.500   
  > 51 5 (45.5) 6 (54.5) 0.54 (0.16–1.84) 0.327   
Gender
 Female 81 (28.9) 199 (71.1) 1.03 (0.73–1.45) 0.862   
 Male 102 (29.6) 243 (70.4) 1.00    
Marital Status?
 Married 34 (30.9) 76 (69.1) 0.91 (0,58–1.43) 0.679   
 Unmarried 149 (28.9) 366 (71.1) 1.00    
Residence?
 Urban 145 (28.0) 372 (72.0) 1.39 (0.89–2.16) 0.239   
 Rural 38 (35.2) 70 (64.8) 1.00    
Education?
 No formal education 8 (53.3) 7 (46.7) 1.00   1.00  
  ≤ 10 years 16 (59.3) 11 (40.7) 0.78 (0.22–2.80) 0.110 1.16 (0.27–5.06) 0.837
 11–12 60 (30.6) 136 (69.4) 2.59 (0.89–7.46) 0.078 3.32 (0.92–12.09) 0.066
  ≥ 13 99 (25.6) 288 (74.4) 3.32 (1.18–9.40) 0.024 4.37 (1.22–15.71) 0.023
Employment?
 Employed 38 (23.6) 123 (76.4) 1.47 (0.97–2.24) 0.067 1.14 (0.72–2.04) 0.176
 Non-Employed 145 (31.3) 319 (68.8) 1.00   1.00  
Monthly Family Income?
  < 25,000 35 (31.8) 75 (68.2) 1.00   1.00  
 25,000–50,000 78 (24.1) 246 (75.9) 1.47 (0.92–2.37) 0.111 1.21 (0.71–2.04) 0.483
  > 50,000    1.81 (1.49–2.33) 0.197 1.72 (1.42–2.24) 0.247
Do you have any COVID-related Symptoms?
 No 155 (30.8) 348 (69.2) 1.00   1.00  
 Not sure 19 (27.5) 50 (72.5) 1.17 (0.67–2.05) 0.179 1.41 (0.76–2.61) 0.270
 Yes 9 (17.0) 44 (83.0) 2.18 (1.04–4.57) 0.040 1.43 (0.64–3.17) 0.379
Have you been diagnosed with COVID-19 by a health professional?
 No 182 (30.3) 418 (69.7) 1.00   1.00  
 Yes 1 (4.0) 24 (96.0) 10.45 (1.40–77.89) 0.022 13.05 (1.49–93.97) 0.020
Do you know any friend, family member, or colleague diagnosed with COVID-19?
 No 94 (33.9) 183 (66.1) 1.00   1.00  
 Yes 89 (25.6) 259 (74.4) 1.45 (1.06–2.11) 0.023 1.05 (0.69–1.59) 0.204
Do you know any friend, family member, or colleague died due to COVID-19?
 No 136 (31.1) 301 (68.9) 1.00   1.00  
 Yes 47 (25.0) 141 (75.0) 1.35 (0.92–1.99) 0.124 1.22 (0.78–1.90) 0.376
Do you have any chronic diseases? (Diabetes, Hypertension, Heart Disease, etc.)
 No 168 (29.3) 405 (70.7) 1.00    
 Yes 15 (28.8) 37 (71.2) 1.02 (0.56–1.91) 0.943   
Overall Attitude towards COVID-19 vaccine
 Negative 61 (43.3) 80 (56.7) 1.00   1.00  
 Positive 122 (25.2) 362 (74.8) 2.26 (1.53–3.35) < 0.001 2.23 (1.48–3.36) < 0.001
  1. Variable with P < 0.2 were entered in multivariate logistic regression analysis. COR Crude odds Ratio, aOR adjusted odds ratio
  2. P-value < 0.05 is considered statistically significant