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Table 2 Death rates (per 100,000 person-years), lower and upper limits (LL, UL) of the 95% CIs, and number of deaths by leading cause of death among adults aged 35+ using a maximum of 10-year follow-upa

From: Modeling mortality risk effects of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco: results from the National Health Interview Survey Linked Mortality File Data

  Current Smokers Former Smokers Never Smokers Never Tobacco Users All
Current SLT users Former SLT users Never SLT users Current SLT users Former SLT users Never SLT users Current SLT users Former SLT users
Number of Participants 810 1976 48,587 728 1512 36,755 1786 1949 126,788 220,891
All-cause mortality
 Rate 1260.2 1486.7 1467.3 2362.1 1954.9 2046.4 1839.5 918.8 1174.3 1398.0
 95% CI: LL 920.2 1235.8 1411.8 1773.2 1609.8 1971.0 1508.0 722.9 1145.1 1371.7
 95% CI: UL 1600.1 1737.6 1522.8 2951.0 2300.0 2121.8 2171.0 1114.8 1203.6 1424.3
 Deaths 81 228 5262 131 229 5199 274 154 10,957 22,515
Smoking-related diseases b
 Rate 926.8 893.5 963.9 1712.3 1343.4 1249.1 984.5 523.9 669.6 841.5
 95% CI: LL 646.5 709.4 921.3 1190.1 1075.7 1191.0 780.0 374.8 648.5 821.8
 95% CI: UL 1207.1 1077.6 1006.5 2234.5 1611.0 1307.3 1189.0 673.1 690.6 861.3
 Deaths 63 144 3644 94 169 3385 173 95 6630 14,397
SLT-related diseases c
 Rate 840.2 723.1 806.7 1497.4 1173.7 1062.2 935.3 488.4 614.4 740.8
 95% CI: LL 566.5 557.5 768.1 995.9 917.1 1009.0 734.0 341.1 594.4 722.4
 95% CI: UL 1113.9 888.8 845.4 1998.8 1430.3 1115.4 1136.5 635.6 634.4 759.3
 Deaths 56 118 3086 79 144 2885 164 87 6113 12,732
Lung diseases excluding lung cancer d
 Rate 81.8* 160.1 147.4 187.5 153.7 171.1 44.8* 34.3* 52.6 94.8
 95% CI: LL 19.3 82.4 131.2 91.3 80.8 151.4 13.1 6.9 46.8 88.7
 95% CI: UL 144.2 237.9 163.7 283.7 226.6 190.8 76.5 61.8 58.3 100.9
 Deaths 7 26 558 15 25 500 9 8 517 1665
Other-cause mortality e
 Rate 310.3 549.3 465.7 560.2 548.7 722.7 789.1 378.5 479.0 520.7
 95% CI: LL 137.8 395.2 434.4 348.9 359.2 680.8 566.3 253.4 460.0 505.5
 95% CI: UL 482.8 703.4 496.9 771.5 738.3 764.6 1011.8 503.7 498.0 535.9
 Deaths 18 84 1618 37 60 1814 101 59 4327 8118
  1. a Excluding participants with missing tobacco-use status, poly-users, and users of other tobacco products including pipe, hookah, e-cigarettes, bidi, and cigars. Survey years: 1987, 1991, 1992, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2012–2014
  2. b Smoking-related diseases: diseases of heart, malignant neoplasms, chronic lower respiratory diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, and influenza and pneumonia
  3. c SLT-related diseases: diseases of heart, malignant neoplasms, cerebrovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus
  4. d Lung diseases excluding lung cancer: chronic lower respiratory diseases, and influenza and pneumonia
  5. e Other-cause mortality: accidents, Alzheimer’s disease, nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis, and all other causes
  6. * Estimates with relative standard error greater than 30%. Due to unreliable precision, these estimates should be interpreted with caution