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Table 3 Participant Diagnosis Patterns, by Disease Severity (based on genotype). As reported via survey by parent

From: Diagnosis patterns of sickle cell disease in Ghana: a secondary analysis

Variable Severe SCD (n = 235) Mild SCD (n = 116)
Age of SCD Diagnosis (p = 0.009)
 0–6 months old 30 (12.7%) 9 (7.8%)
 7–11 months old 15 (6.3%) 4 (3.5%)
 1–2 years old 44 (18.6%) 12 (10.3%)
 3–4 years old 31 (13.1%) 11 (9.5%)
 5–10 years old 64 (27.0%) 37 (31.9%)
 11–14 years old 27 (11.4%) 14 (12.1%)
 15+ years old 26 (11.0%) 29 (25.0%)
No missing data   
Mechanism of SCD Diagnosis (p = 0.132)
  “Blood test…”
  For pain crisis
   At the hospital/ER 105 (46.1%) 63 (55.3%)
   At the pediatrician’s office 43 (18.9%) 14 (12.3%)
  Because child in family had SCD 15 (6.6%) 11 (9.7%)
  At birth (newborn screen) 15 (6.6%) 4 (3.5%)
  For another illness (not pain crisis) 41 (18.0%) 14 (12.3%)
 Other 9 (4.0%) 8 (7.0%)
Missing diagnosis mechanism = 11   
Age of First Pain Crisis (p = 0.047)
 0–6 months old 14 (7.3%) 4 (4.1%)
 7–11 months old 3 (1.6%) 0 (0%)
 1–2 years old 62 (32.3%) 17 (17.4%)
 3–4 years old 18 (9.4%) 14 (14.3%)
 5–10 years old 58 (30.2%) 39 (39.8%)
 11–14 years old 16 (8.3%) 8 (8.2%)
 15+ years old 21 (10.9%) 16 (16.3%)
Missing first pain crisis = 64   
  1. ER Emergency room
  2. SCD Sickle cell disease
  3. Severe SCD: Hb SS; Hb S Beta Thalassemia-zero
  4. Mild SCD: Hb SC; Hb S Beta Thalassemia-plus; Other
  5. Fisher’s exact used where individual cells < 5