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Table 9 Linear regression model with Prais-Winsten estimator describing the relationship between a state’s total number of firearm laws and number of other states for which it is the destination of 100 or more crime-related firearms in a given year, adjusting for state-level characteristics, 2010–2017

From: Firearm laws and the network of firearm movement among US states

Variable b (95% CI)
Intercept −1.16 (−2.17, − 0.15)*
Year 0.08 (0.04, 0.12)***
Poverty rate 0.06 (−0.03, 0.16)
Density 0.04 (−0.05, 0.13)
Area 0.47 (0.09, 0.85)*
Firearm ownership −0.23 (− 0.55, 0.08)
Number of laws 0.51 (0.30, 0.71)***
Census division
 New England ref
 Mid-Atlantic 1.83 (0.89, 2.77)***
 East North Central 1.99 (0.95, 3.03)***
 West North Central 1.31 (0.16, 2.45)*
 South Atlantic 2.30 (1.28, 3.32)***
 East South Central 1.80 (0.69, 2.91)**
 West South Central 1.64 (0.36, 2.92)*
 Mountain 0.96 (−0.24, 2.16)
 Pacific 1.39 (0.35, 2.43)**
  1. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001