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Table 2 Regression analysis of women empowerment and demographics on minimum daily meal frequency

From: Women empowerment and minimum daily meal frequency among infants and young children in Ghana: analysis of Ghana demographic and health survey

Independent variables Category Model 1 Model2 Model 3 Model 4
Economic factors
Control over women’s income Respondent alone −0.0528 [− 0.618,0.513] −0.0953 [− 0.670,0.479] − 0.152 [− 0.727,0.423] −0.068 [− 0.595,0.459]
Respondent and husband/partner −0.0819 [− 0.671,0.507] −0.029 [− 0.638,0.580] −0.119 [− 0.729,0.491] −0.1 [− 0.668,0.468]
Husband/Partner or other alone Ref Ref Ref Ref
Respondent alone 0.251 [−0.109,0.612] 0.118 [− 0.268,0.505] 0.0807 [− 0.305,0.466] −0.186 [− 0.542,0.169]
Respondent and husband/partner 0.118 [−0.123,0.360] 0.273* [− 0.00830,0.554] 0.275* [− 0.00675,0.556] 0.351*** [0.0851,0.617]
Husband/Partner or other alone Ref Ref Ref Ref
Mothers occupation Not working Ref Ref Ref Ref
White collar 0.0859 [−0.143,0.315] 0.128 [− 0.111,0.367] 0.132 [− 0.106,0.371] 0.0543 [− 0.191,0.299]
Agricultural/labour Ref Ref Ref Ref
Socio-familial empowerment
Family visit decision Respondent alone   0.514** [0.0792,0.949] 0.551** [0.116,0.986] 0.743*** [0.329,1.157]
Respondent and husband/partner   0.248 [−0.152,0.648] 0.241 [− 0.159,0.641] 0.304 [− 0.0638,0.672]
Husband/Partner or other alone   Ref Ref Ref
Own health Respondent alone   −0.059 [− 0.418,0.300] − 0.0424 [− 0.402,0.318] − 0.0127 [− 0.343,0.318]
Respondent and husband/partner   −0.141 [− 0.505,0.222] −0.16 [− 0.527,0.207] −0.238 [− 0.585,0.109]
Husband/Partner or other alone   Ref Ref Ref
Attitude towards violence Don’t know   Ref Ref Ref
No   1.169* [− 0.114,2.451] 0.866 [− 0.422,2.155] 0.243 [− 0.978,1.464]
Yes   1.458** [0.156,2.761] 1.171* [− 0.135,2.477] 0.467 [− 0.785,1.719]
Legal Empowerment
House Does not own    Ref Ref
Alone only    0.135 [−0.385,0.654] 0.118 [− 0.375,0.611]
Jointly only    −0.345** [− 0.664,-0.0265] −0.245* [− 0.535,0.0440]
Both alone and jointly    −0.198 [− 0.885,0.489] −0.357 [− 0.984,0.269]
Land Does not own    Ref Ref
Alone only    −0.129 [−0.545,0.287] − 0.358* [− 0.738,0.0221]
Jointly only    0.579*** [0.239,0.919] 0.470*** [0.154,0.785]
Both alone and jointly    0.191 [−0.509,0.891] 0.263 [−0.380,0.905]
Demographic factors
Age of child (Months) 6 to 8     Ref
9 to 11     1.179*** [0.781,1.577]
12 to 17     0.646*** [0.361,0.932]
18 to 23     1.387*** [1.094,1.681]
Sex of child Male     Ref
Female     −0.0885 [− 0.302,0.125]
Mother’s age (Years)      0.000872 [−0.0179,0.0196]
Highest Educational level No education     Ref
Primary     −0.325* [− 0.707,0.0574]
Secondary     −0.172 [− 0.520,0.176]
Higher     0.496* [−0.0170,1.008]
Residence Urban     Ref
Rural     − 0.298* [− 0.600,0.00450]
Level of wealth designation Poorest     Ref
Poorer     −0.0412 [−0.429,0.346]
Middle     −0.163 [− 0.599,0.274]
Richer     −0.0345 [− 0.513,0.444]
Richest     −0.238 [− 0.808,0.332]
Number of children less than 5 yrs      −0.0163 [− 0.159,0.127]
 _cons   3.407*** [2.834,3.980] 1.942*** [0.516,3.369] 2.306*** [0.866,3.747] 2.465*** [0.812,4.118]
 R-sq   0.006 0.041 0.073 0.289
 adj. R2   −0.004 0.016 0.034 0.231
  1. 90% confidence intervals in brackets; Ref = Reference; *p < 0.10, **p < 0.05, ***p < 0.01.
  2. Model 1 constituted the economic empowerment variables.
  3. Model 2 added the socio-familial variables;
  4. Model 3 included the legal empowerment variables;
  5. Model 4 added the demographic characteristics or variables.