Skip to main content

Table 4 Descriptions of PMH risk factors/protective factors that identified community-centred interventions aimed to address

From: Community interventions for improving adult mental health: mapping local policy and practice in England

Risk factor / protective factor Description
Financial stress Psychosocial problems relating to debt, finances, welfare benefits payments, insecure housing, and employment.
Job insecurity and unemployment Programmes for unemployed people or people in insecure job positions to progress toward stable employment.
Mental health stigma, knowledge and awareness Stigma and discrimination experienced by people with mental health problems, limited awareness, skills and knowledge about mental health.
Stigma, Discrimination and Marginalisation - Ethnicity and migration status Problems specific to minority ethnic groups (e.g. stigma, discrimination, migration-related difficulties, language barriers, refugee and immigration status)
Stigma, Discrimination and Marginalisation – LGBTQ+ Problems specific to LGBTQ+ groups (e.g. stigma, discrimination, limited awareness of trans and non-binary)
Social isolation and loneliness Limited social interactions, feeling alone/unsupported or socially disconnected.
Caring responsibilities Difficulties experienced by people due to their caring role (e.g. burnout, reduced employment opportunities, financial stress)
Community safety and cohesion Experiences and perceptions of crime, violence and safety in their neighbourhood (e.g. gangs, knife crime, anti-social behaviour, hate crimes), efforts to build social cohesion and community engagement.
Food insecurity Unreliable or insufficient availability of food
Gender-based violence Actual or threatened physical, sexual, emotional or financial violence committed against women (e.g. intimate partner violence, sexual harassment and intimidation, female genital mutilation, forced marriage)
Access to health and social services Difficulties accessing and navigating the health and social care system, including issues around the availability, cultural acceptability and affordability of services.
Bereavement Grief, bereavement and traumatic loss following the death of friends or family.
Family relationships and parenting Stable and supportive family relationships, divorce and separation, household conflict, problems experienced in pregnancy or during the transition to parenthood, and difficulties providing for your children.
Physical activity and other health behaviours The promotion of health behaviours that encourage positive mental health, including increased physical activity and reduced alcohol and drug use.
Mood, confidence and self-esteem Feeling low in mood, anxious, stressed, depressed, worried, angry and lacking in confidence or self-esteem.
All risk factors/Risk factor not specified/Other Interventions which does not aim to target any specific risk factor, where it aims to target all or any risk factor or where the risk factor does not belong in any of the above categories.