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Table 3 Vaccine confidence by health information source, maternal, child, socioeconomic, and geographic characteristics in Albania. Vaccine confidence among mothers of under-5- year-old children by health information source, maternal, child, socioeconomic, and geographic characteristics in Albania. Crude odds ratios were estimated via simple logistic regression and adjusted odd s ratios were estimated via multivariable logistic regression

From: Childhood immunisation timeliness and vaccine confidence by health information source, maternal, socioeconomic, and geographic characteristics in Albania

Characteristic Category Mothers in each
sub-group
(N and %)
Vaccine confidence
(% and 95 CI)
Crude odds ratio Adjusted odd ratio
OR (95% CI) p-value (F-test) AOR (95% CI) p-value (t-test)
Health information source
Internet/social media as main health information source No 1268 (70.6) 94.3 (92.0, 95.9) 1 0.019 1
Yes 527 (29.4) 89.5 (84.9, 92.8) 0.52 (0.30, 0.90) 0.44 (0.27, 0.73) 0.002
Trusted source of information on vaccines Healthcare workers 1734 (96.6) 93.2 (91.2, 94.7) 1 0.093  
Traditional media 19 (1.1) 100
Internet/ social media 32 (1.8) 76.7 (44.2, 93.2) 0.24 (0.06, 1.02)
Family, other 10 (0.5) 83.6 (45.9, 96.8) 0.37 (0.06, 2.27)
Maternal
Age at birth (years) < 25 594 (33.1) 93.9 (90.9, 96.0) 1 0.604  
25–29 627 (35.0) 92.3 (89.2, 94.6) 0.78 (0.47, 1.28)
≥30 574 (32.0) 92.6 (88.7, 95.2) 0.81 (0.42, 1.55)
Education Higher 454 (25.3) 93.2 (88.7, 96.0) 1 0.422  
Secondary 464 (25.8) 92.3 (86.7, 95.6) 0.87 (0.38, 1.98)
Primary 862 (48.0) 93.3 (90.9, 95.1) 1.02 (0.53, 1.93)
No 15 (0.8) 82.7 (58.5, 94.2) 0.35 (0.09, 23.98)
Marital status Married/living with partner 1768 (98.5) 93.4 (91.8, 94.8) 1 0.022 1
Other - mother alone 27 (1.5) 59.7 (18.1, 90.8) 0.10 (0.02, 0.72) 0.08 (0.01, 0.65) 0.019
Sex of household head Male 1529 (85.2) 92.8 (91.0, 94.4) 1 0.889  
Female 911 (14.8) 93.4 (82.1, 97.7) 1.08 (0.34, 3.46)
Child
Gender Male 884 (42.3) 93.3 (90.9, 95.0) 1 0.697  
Female 911 (50.7) 92.6 (89.3, 94.9) 0.90 (0.54, 1.50)
Birth order First 779 (43.4) 94.1 (92.0, 95.6) 1 0.324  
Second 661 (36.8) 92.0 (88.9, 94.3) 0.72 (0.47, 1.11)
Third/more 355 (19.8) 92.1 (87.3, 95.2) 0.73 (0.40, 1.36)
Socioeconomic
Ethnicity Albanian 1734 (96.6) 93.0 (91.0, 94.6) 1 0.133 1
Egyptian 33 (1.8) 96.4 (77.8, 99.5) 2.00 (0.26, 15.40) 2.05 (0.26, 16.22) 0.496
Other 28 (1.6) 82.8 (63.7, 93.0) 0.36 (0.13, 1.05) 0.39 (0.15, 0.97) 0.042
Religion Muslim 1492 (83.1) 92.8 (90.1, 94.5) 1 0.532  
Catholic 191 (10.6) 95.1 (87.4, 98.1) 1.50 (0.52, 4.37)
Other 112 (6.2) 90.4 (81.8, 95.2) 0.73 (0.33, 1.62)
Mother worked last 12 months Not worked 1228 (68.4) 92.9 (90.5, 94.7) 1 0.986  
Worked/partly worked 567 (31.6) 92.9 (89.0, 95.5) 1.00 (0.56, 1.80)
Household wealth Poorest 427 (23.8) 91.9 (88.5, 94.4) 1 0.376  
Poore 372 (20.8) 95.2 (92.5, 97.0) 1.75 (0.97, 3.12)
Middle 352 (19.6) 93.5 (89.4, 96.1) 1.26 (0.64, 2.47)
Richer 348 (19.4) 90.1 (82.0, 95.3) 0.84 (0.36, 1.97)
Richest 296 (16.5) 93.5 (87.8, 96.7) 1.27 (0.57, 2.84)
Education of partner Higher 256 (14.5) 92.5 (85.4, 96.3) 1 0.756  
Secondary 633 (35.8) 93.1 (90.2, 95.2) 1.09 (0.46, 2.59)
Primary 854 (48.3) 94.0 (91.7, 95.7) 1.27 (0.56, 2.91)
No 26 (1.5) 88.9 (67.3, 96.9) 0.65 (0.14, 3.11)
Partner worked last 12 months Not worked/don’t know 356 (20.1) 95.6 (92.6, 97.4) 1 0.117  
Worked/partly worked 1413 (79.9) 92.9 (90.9, 94.5) 0.61 (0.33, 1.13)
Geographic
Area of residence Urban 971 (54.1) 94.0 (90.9, 96.1) 1 0.196  
Rural 824 (45.9) 91.7 (89.1, 93.7) 0.70 (0.41, 1.21)
Prefecture Tirane 430 (24.0) 92.5 (85.3, 96.4) 1 0.004  
Berat 78 (4.4) 89.1 (82.3, 93.5) 0.66 (0.26, 1.70)
Diber 123 (6.9) 95.1 (91.4, 97.3) 1.58 (0.60, 4.17)
Durres 221 (12.3) 97.0 (91.6, 98.9) 2.59 (0.69, 9.69)
Elbasan 188 (10.5) 96.1 (89.9, 98.6) 2.01 (0.56, 7.22)
Fier 185 (10.3) 86.4 (78.8, 91.6) 0.51 (0.20, 1.31)
Gjirokaster 32 (1.8) 84.9 (74.3, 91.6) 0.46 (0.17, 1.25)
Korce 127 (7.1) 87.4 (78.7, 92.9) 0.56 (0.21, 1.51)
Kukes 82 (4.6) 95.8 (91.7, 97.9) 1.82 (0.64, 5.18)
Lezhe 102 (5.7) 95.4 (89.5, 98.0) 1.68 (0.52, 5.42)
Shkoder 121 (6.7) 94.6 (87.9, 97.7) 1.41 (0.44, 4.51)
Vlore 106 (5.9) 94.1 (88.3, 97.2) 1.30 (0.44, 3.80)
Region AL01-Veri 649 (36.1) 95.8 (93.7, 97.2) 1 0.0002 1
AL02-Qender 618 (34.4) 93.6 (88.4, 96.5) 0.65 (0.30, 1.40) 0.71 (0.33, 1.50) 0.367
AL03-Jug 528 (29.4) 88.5 (85.0, 91.3) 0.34 (0.20, 0.57) 0.33 (0.19, 0.59) < 0.0001