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Table 1 Childhood immunisation timeliness by health information source, maternal, child, socioeconomic, and geographic characteristics in Albania. Childhood immunisation timeliness among mothers of under-5-year-old children by health information source, maternal, child, socioeconomic, and geographic characteristics in Albania. Crude odds ratios were estimated via simple logistic regression and adjusted odds ratios were estimated via multivariable logistic regression

From: Childhood immunisation timeliness and vaccine confidence by health information source, maternal, socioeconomic, and geographic characteristics in Albania

Characteristics Category Mothers in each sub-group
(N and %)
Immunisation timeliness
(% and 95% CI)
Crude odds ratio Adjusted odds ratio
OR a nd 95% CI p-value (F-test) AOR and 95% CI p-value (t-test)
Health information source
Internet/social media as main health information source No 1472 (69.6) 80.3 (75.7, 84.2) 1 0.022 1
Yes 641 (30.4) 73.2 (67.6, 78.2) 0.67 (0.48, 0.94) 0.66 (0.47, 0.94) 0.020
Trusted source of information on vaccines Healthcare workers 2028 (95.9) 78.9 (75.1, 82.3) 1 0.139  
Traditional media 31 (1.5) 60.8 (23.0, 89.0) 0.41 (0.08, 2.13)
Internet /social media 38 (1.8) 64.0 (39.1, 83.2) 0.48 (0.17, 1.36)
Family, other 16 (0.8) 48.4 (16.3, 81.9) 0.25 (0.05, 1.23)
Maternal
Age at birth (years) < 25 685 (32.4) 79.9 (74.1, 84.6) 1 0.494  
25–29 753 (35.6) 76.6 (71.3, 81.1) 0.82 (0.56, 1.20)
≥30 675 (32.0) 78.1 (72.5, 82.8) 0.90 (0.60, 1.33)
Education Higher 569 (26.9) 74.3 (67.4, 80.1) 1 0.032 1
Secondary 521 (24.7) 81.5 (76.5, 85.7) 1.53 (0.99, 2.35) 0.94 (0.59, 1.52) 0.811
Primary 998 (47.2) 79.3 (74.8, 83.2) 1.33 (0.92, 1.91) 0.64 (0.38, 1.05) 0.078
No 25 (1.2) 48.0 (22.1, 75.1) 0.32 (0.10, 0.99) 0.14 (0.03, 0.67) 0.014
Marital status Married/living with partner 2113 (100) 78.1 (74.3, 81.5) NA NA  
Other - mother alone 0 (0) NA NA
Sex of household head Male 1799 (85.1) 78.4 (75.1, 81.5) 1 0.703  
Female 314 (14.9) 76.3 (62.5, 86.1) 0.88 (0.46, 1.68)
Child
Gender Male 1071 (50.7) 76.4 (71.9, 80.4) 1 0.114  
Female 1042 (49.3) 79.9 (75.5, 83.7) 1.2 (0.95, 1.57)
Birth order First 921 (43.6) 7836 (74.2, 81.9) 1 0.246  
Second 791 (37.5) 76.3 (71.3, 80.7) 0.89 (0.70, 1.13)
Third/more 401 (19.0) 81.3 (74.6, 85.5) 1.20 (0.81, 1.80)
Socioeconomic
Ethnicity Albanian 2032 (96.2) 78.6 (74.7, 82.0) 1 0.089  
Egyptian 40 (1.9) 78.7 (59.2, 90.4) 1.01 (0.39, 2.64)
Other (mostly Roma) 41 (1.9) 56.7 (34.6, 76.4) 0.36 (0.14, 0.90)
Religion Muslim 1763 (83.4) 77.7 (73.4, 81.5) 1 0.053  
Catholic 210 (9.9) 86.2 (77.3, 92.0) 1.79 (0.94, 3.39)
Other 140 (6.6) 71.2 (61.2, 79.5) 0.71 (0.43, 1.16)
Mother worked last 12 months Not worked 1383 (65.4) 82.0 (78.5, 85.1) 1 0.0001 1
Worked / partly worked 730 (34.6) 70.8 (64.2, 76.6) 0.53 (0.39, 0.72) 0.65 (0.47, 0.91) 0.013
Household wealth Poorest 485 (22.9) 80.1 (74.7, 84.7) 1 0.471  
Poorer 429 (20.3) 80.4 (75.2, 84.9) 1.02 (0.67, 1.55)
Middle 409 (19.4) 79.9 (72.7, 85.6) 0.99 (0.61, 1.60)
Richer 419 (19.8) 74.9 (67.4, 81.1) 0.74 (0.47, 1.16)
Richest 371 (17.6) 74.6 (64.8, 82.3) 0.73 (0.44, 1.21)
Education of partner Higher 344 (16.3) 68.6 (57.8, 77.7) 1 0.065 1
Secondary 741 (35.1) 79.5 (74.7, 83.5) 1.77 (1.06, 2.95) 1.60 (0.92, 2.78) 0.093
Primary 998 (47.2) 80.4 (75.8, 84.3) 1.87 (1.18, 2.98) 1.74 (0.93, 3.25) 0.081
No 30 (1.4) 78.7 (60.2, 90.1) 1.69 (0.61, 4.69) 2.58 (0.39, 17.04) 0.324
Partner worked last 12 months Not worked/don’t know 400 (18.8) 85.6 (79.7, 90.1) 1 0.012 1
Worked/partly worked 1726 (81.2) 76.4 (72.0, 80.3) 0.54 (0.34, 0.88) 0.75 (0.45, 1.24) 0.263
Geographic
Area of residence Urban 1186 (56.1) 76.2 (69.8, 81.5) 1 0.158  
Rural 927 (43.9) 80.7 (77.4, 83.6) 1.31 (0.90, 1.91)
Prefecture Tirane 560 (26.5) 71.1 (59.2, 80.6) 1 < 0.0001  
Berat 102 (4.8) 68.5 (58.3, 77.2) 0.95 (0.49, 1.83)
Diber 124 (5.9) 93.6 (89.0, 96.4) 6.26 (2.97, 13.20)
Durres 241 (11.4) 86.8 (79.3, 91.8) 2.98 (1.45, 6.13)
Elbasan 238 (11.3) 75.9 (67.0, 83.0) 1.38 (0.72, 2.64)
Fier 225 (10.6) 70.5 (62.0, 77.8) 1.05 (0.57, 1.95)
Gjirokaster 42 (2.0) 62.3 (49.2, 73.9) 0.74 (0.36, 1.53)
Korce 154 (7.3) 70.2 (58.5, 79.7) 1.07 (0.53, 2.14)
Kukes 86 (4.1) 88.7 (81.0, 93.6) 3.61 (1.65, 7.89)
Lezhe 110 (5.2) 88.5 (78.2, 94.3) 3.40 (1.36, 8.49)
Shkoder 122 (5.8) 91.6 (83.6, 95.9) 4.97 (2.01, 12.25)
Vlore 109 (5.1) 90.6 (83.3, 94.9) 3.90 (1.78, 8.55)
Region AL01-Veri 684 (32.4) 89.4 (86.1, 92.0) 1 < 0.0001 1  
AL02-Qender 798 (37.8) 72.5 (63.8, 79.8) 0.31 (0.19, 0.52) 0.38 (0.23, 0.63) < 0.0001
AL03-Jug 631 (29.9) 73.0 (68.4, 77.2) 0.32 (0.22, 0.47) 0.36 (0.24, 0.53) < 0.0001