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Table 3 Odds ratios (ORs)a of less good self-rated health, by occupational class and educational level, in four distinctive survey years

From: Trends and socioeconomic inequalities in self-rated health in Japan, 1986–2016

Survey year 1986b 1995c 2010d 2016e
ORa 95% CI ORa 95% CI ORa 95% CI ORa 95% CI
Men
 Occupational class (EGP scheme, aged 25–64)
  Upper non-manual workers (I+II) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference)
  Lower non-manual workers (III) 1.09 (1.01–1.18) 1.06 (0.99–1.14) 1.12 (1.07–1.17) 1.20 (1.15–1.26)
  Manual workers (V+VI+VIIa) 1.15 (1.06–1.23) 1.10 (1.03–1.18) 1.21 (1.16–1.26) 1.27 (1.21–1.33)
  Farmers (IVc+VIIb) 0.92 (0.82–1.04) 0.95 (0.85–1.06) 1.03 (0.94–1.12) 1.18 (1.07–1.29)
  Self-employed (IVa+b) 1.10 (1.02–1.19) 1.05 (0.98–1.13) 1.02 (0.97–1.08) 1.08 (1.01–1.14)
 Educational level (aged 25–64)
  High (ISCED: 5–8) N/A   N/A   1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference)
  Middle (ISCED: 3, 4)    1.22 (1.18–1.27) 1.34 (1.29–1.38)
  Low (ISCED: 1, 2)    1.47 (1.39–1.56) 1.75 (1.63–1.88)
 Educational level (aged 65–94)
  High (ISCED: 5–8) N/A   N/A   1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference)
  Middle (ISCED: 3, 4)    1.34 (1.20–1.51) 1.34 (1.20–1.48)
  Low (ISCED: 1, 2)    1.48 (1.31–1.66) 1.54 (1.38–1.72)
Women
 Occupational class (EGP scheme, aged 25–64)
  Upper non-manual workers (I+II) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference)
  Lower non-manual workers (III) 1.08 (1.00–1.16) 1.08 (1.02–1.15) 1.06 (1.01–1.10) 1.11 (1.07–1.16)
  Manual workers (V+VI+VIIa) 1.12 (1.03–1.21) 1.14 (1.06–1.23) 1.19 (1.12–1.26) 1.34 (1.27–1.43)
  Farmers (IVc+VIIb) 0.95 (0.84–1.07) 1.05 (0.94–1.19) 1.00 (0.90–1.11) 1.25 (1.12–1.40)
  Self-employed (IVa+b) 1.01 (0.91–1.11) 1.03 (0.93–1.13) 0.93 (0.85–1.02) 0.86 (0.78–0.96)
 Educational level (aged 25–64)
  High (ISCED: 5–8) N/A   N/A   1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference)
  Middle (ISCED: 3, 4)    1.22 (1.17–1.28) 1.32 (1.26–1.37)
  Low (ISCED: 1, 2)    1.74 (1.61–1.88) 2.03 (1.87–2.21)
 Educational level (aged 65–94)
  High (ISCED: 5–8) N/A   N/A   1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference)
  Middle (ISCED: 3, 4)    1.25 (1.09–1.43) 1.24 (1.11–1.40)
  Low (ISCED: 1, 2)    1.54 (1.34–1.76) 1.49 (1.32–1.68)
  1. 95% CI 95% Confidence Interval, EGP scheme Erikson-Goldthorpe-Portocarero scheme, ISCED International Standard Classification of Education
  2. Low (ISCED: 1, 2): Elementary school/junior high school graduation
  3. Middle (ISCED: 3, 4): High school/technical professional school graduation
  4. High (ISCED: 5–8): Two-year college/university graduation, or more
  5. a Estimates were calculated using proportional odds logistic regression models, controlling age category (5-years): Model 2. The odds ratio is the probability of less good self-rated health compared with the reference group
  6. b Year of starting the survey
  7. c Year of best self-rated health in Japan, between 1986 and 2016
  8. d Year of Japanese’ worst self-rated health for working aged men and women, between 1986 and 2016, and the year of starting the survey including educational background
  9. e The latest survey