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Table 8 Results of approximate scalar invariance model with prior variance of 0.01 for the differences in item intercepts of the Urbanicity Scale from 2006 to 2009

From: Longitudinal measurement invariance in urbanization index of Chinese communities across 2000 and 2015: a Bayesian approximate measurement invariance approach

Item ν Deviations from the average ν Δ
Average SD 2006 2009
Communication 6.44 0.09 −0.16* 0.16* 5.1%
Population density 5.97 0.10 −0.02 0.02 0.6%
Diversity 5.33 0.08 −0.09* 0.09* 3.3%
Economic activity 6.64 0.20 −0.01 0.01 0.4%
Health structure 5.41 0.15 −0.11* 0.11* 4.1%
Housing 7.35 0.15 −0.21* 0.21* 5.6%
Traditional market 4.88 0.22 0.01 −0.01 0.2%
Social services 3.45 0.17 −0.04 0.04 2.3%
Transportation 5.91 0.14 −0.01 0.01 0.5%
Education 3.47 0.10 −0.01 0.01 0.7%
Modern market 4.51 0.19 0.04 −0.04 1.7%
Sanitation 6.83 0.20 −0.04 0.04 1.1%
  1. * p < 0.05; ν = item intercept; SD standard deviation; Δ = maximum proportional deviation from the average intercept across the 2006–2009 waves. The significant deviations from the average intercept are highlighted in bold