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Table 7 Results of approximate scalar invariance model with prior variance of 0.04 for the differences in item intercepts of the Urbanicity Scale from 2004 to 2011

From: Longitudinal measurement invariance in urbanization index of Chinese communities across 2000 and 2015: a Bayesian approximate measurement invariance approach

Item ν Deviations from the average ν Δ
Average SD 2004 2006 2009 2011
Communication 6.79 0.09 −0.61* − 0.28* 0.24* 0.65* 18.6%
Population density 6.33 0.10 −0.07* − 0.03 0.04 0.06* 2.0%
Diversity 5.45 0.07 −0.44* −0.02 0.18* 0.27* 13.0%
Economic activity 7.24 0.18 −0.35* −0.01 0.05 0.31* 9.1%
Health structure 5.75 0.12 −0.04 − 0.24* 0.21* 0.08 7.8%
Housing 7.80 0.13 −0.53* −0.21* 0.28* 0.46* 12.6%
Traditional market 5.22 0.19 0.11 0.01 −0.01 −0.11 4.3%
Social services 3.93 0.15 −0.24* −0.11 0.12 0.24* 12.2%
Transportation 5.66 0.11 0.20* 0.15 0.29* −0.64* 16.4%
Education 3.92 0.11 −0.15* −0.03 − 0.01 0.19* 8.6%
Modern market 4.92 0.16 0.16 0.06 −0.10 − 0.11 5.4%
Sanitation 7.36 0.17 −0.18* −0.02 0.10 0.11 3.9%
  1. * p < 0.05; ν = item intercept; SD standard deviation; Δ = maximum proportional deviation from the average intercept across the 2004–2011 waves. The top two significant deviations from the average intercept are highlighted in bold