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Table 6 Results of approximate metric invariance model with prior variance of 0.01 for the differences in factor loadings of the Urbanicity Scale from 2004 to 2011

From: Longitudinal measurement invariance in urbanization index of Chinese communities across 2000 and 2015: a Bayesian approximate measurement invariance approach

Item λ Deviations from the average λ Δ
Average SD 2004 2006 2009 2011
Communication 1.12 0.07 0.01 − 0.04 − 0.01 0.04 7.4%
Population density 1.05 0.08 −0.02 − 0.04 0.02 0.04 7.0%
Diversity 0.86 0.06 0.03 0.04 −0.06* − 0.01 12.1%
Economic activity 2.31 0.13 0.02 −0.02 0.04 −0.04 3.6%
Health structure 1.28 0.11 0.05 0.05 −0.02 −0.08 10.3%
Housing 1.75 0.09 0.17* 0.08* −0.05 − 0.20* 21.0%
Traditional market 2.07 0.16 −0.01 0.04 0.01 −0.04 3.9%
Social services 1.66 0.12 0.01 −0.03 0.01 0.02 3.0%
Transportation 1.06 0.10 −0.01 0.03 0.00 −0.01 3.6%
Education 1.27 0.09 −0.14* 0.02 −0.03 0.15* 22.2%
Modern market 2.11 0.13 0.02 0.01 −0.03 0.00 2.0%
Sanitation 2.35 0.13 0.02 0.04 0.02 −0.08 4.9%
  1. * p < 0.05; λ = factor loading; SD standard deviation; Δ = maximum proportional deviation from the average loading across the 2004–2011 waves. The top two significant deviations from the average loading are highlighted in bold