Skip to main content

Table 5 Results of approximate scalar invariance model with prior variance of 0.09 for the differences in item intercepts of the Urbanicity Scale from 2000 to 2015

From: Longitudinal measurement invariance in urbanization index of Chinese communities across 2000 and 2015: a Bayesian approximate measurement invariance approach

Item ν Deviations from the average ν Δ
Average SD 2000 2004 2006 2009 2011 2015
Communication 6.46 0.06 −1.31* − 0.45* − 0.07 0.51* 0.97* 0.36* 35.3%
Population density 6.26 0.09 − 0.13* −0.03 0.01 0.08* 0.11* − 0.04 3.8%
Diversity 5.36 0.06 −0.58* − 0.40* 0.03 0.25* 0.34* 0.36* 17.4%
Economic activity 6.91 0.15 −1.05* −0.32* 0.13 0.21* 0.55* 0.49* 23.1%
Health structure 5.75 0.10 0.13 −0.12 −0.35* 0.25* 0.12 −0.03 10.4%
Housing 7.66 0.10 −0.94* −0.46* − 0.15* 0.36* 0.57* 0.61* 20.2%
Traditional market 5.39 0.15 0.51* −0.01 −0.12 − 0.15 −0.25* 0.02 14.2%
Social services 3.42 0.10 −1.37* −0.15 0.00 0.30* 0.52* 0.69* 60.2%
Transportation 5.81 0.10 0.05 0.18 0.11 0.22* −0.90* 0.33* 21.2%
Education 4.13 0.09 −0.33* −0.32* − 0.22* − 0.19* 0.00 1.07* 34.0%
Modern market 4.89 0.14 0.09 0.15 −0.01 − 0.23* − 0.16* 0.16* 8.0%
Sanitation 7.19 0.14 −0.51* − 0.12 0.05 0.18* 0.22* 0.19* 10.2%
  1. * p < 0.05; ν = item intercept; SD standard deviation; Δ = maximum proportional deviation from the average intercept across the 2000–2015 waves. The top two significant deviations from the average intercept are highlighted in bold