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Table 4 Results of approximate metric invariance model with prior variance of 0.01 for the differences in factor loadings of the Urbanicity Scale from 2000 to 2015

From: Longitudinal measurement invariance in urbanization index of Chinese communities across 2000 and 2015: a Bayesian approximate measurement invariance approach

Item λ Deviations from the average λ Δ
Average SD 2000 2004 2006 2009 2011 2015
Communication 0.89 0.05 −0.09* 0.06 0.01 0.04 0.11* −0.14* 28.0%
Population density 1.02 0.07 −0.11* − 0.02 − 0.04 0.02 0.00 0.16* 26.1%
Diversity 0.71 0.05 −0.02 0.06* 0.07* − 0.03 0.04 −0.13* 27.7%
Economic activity 2.13 0.11 0.01 0.03 −0.03 0.04 −0.03 − 0.02 3.2%
Health structure 1.09 0.08 −0.01 0.06 0.06 −0.00 −0.06 − 0.05 11.1%
Housing 1.54 0.08 0.16* 0.12* 0.07 −0.01 − 0.11* −0.24* 26.5%
Traditional market 1.65 0.13 −0.05 0.02 0.06 0.04 −0.01 −0.06 6.9%
Social services 0.92 0.07 −0.30* 0.09 0.04 0.03 0.08 0.07 42.7%
Transportation 0.96 0.08 0.04 −0.02 0.02 − 0.01 −0.00 − 0.03 6.8%
Education 1.10 0.07 −0.08* −0.08* 0.06* 0.02 0.19* −0.11* 26.6%
Modern market 1.84 0.11 −0.02 0.03 0.02 −0.02 0.03 −0.03 3.6%
Sanitation 2.03 0.11 0.12* −0.00 0.05 0.04 0.03 −0.24* 17.5%
  1. * p < 0.05; λ = factor loading; SD standard deviation; Δ = maximum proportional deviation from the average loading across the 2000–2015 waves. The top two significant deviations from the average loading are highlighted in bold