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Table 1 Means and standard deviations of the twelve components of the Urbanicity Scale from 2000 to 2015

From: Longitudinal measurement invariance in urbanization index of Chinese communities across 2000 and 2015: a Bayesian approximate measurement invariance approach

Item 2000 2004 2006 2009 2011 2015 Skewness
M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) Range
Communication 4.85 (1.18) 5.71 (1.50) 6.15 (1.43) 6.77 (1.54) 7.49 (1.56) 6.84 (1.30) −0.73 to − 0.26
Population density 5.82 (1.40) 5.92 (1.46) 5.94 (1.47) 5.98 (1.50) 6.32 (1.56) 6.16 (1.91) −0.37 to 0.19
Diversity 4.57 (1.17) 4.73 (1.21) 5.18 (1.28) 5.45 (1.13) 5.70 (1.29) 5.69 (1.14) −0.02 to 0.59
Economic activity 4.71 (3.25) 5.90 (3.28) 6.53 (3.10) 6.70 (3.24) 7.57 (2.94) 7.47 (3.05) −0.93 to 0.42
Health structure 5.64 (2.23) 5.28 (2.33) 5.03 (2.40) 5.95 (2.57) 5.92 (2.57) 5.72 (2.71) −0.56 to 0.04
Housing 6.02 (2.67) 6.59 (2.50) 6.99 (2.33) 7.63 (2.02) 8.20 (1.77) 8.26 (1.67) −1.14 to 0.01
Traditional market 6.00 (3.48) 5.12 (3.67) 4.86 (3.90) 4.85 (3.47) 4.87 (3.43) 5.22 (3.53) −0.36 to 0.12
Social services 1.72 (1.10) 3.00 (2.58) 3.20 (2.74) 3.74 (3.17) 4.44 (3.30) 4.68 (3.39) 0.34 to 1.29
Transportation 5.72 (2.47) 5.91 (2.40) 5.82 (2.57) 5.97 (2.18) 4.74 (2.06) 6.16 (2.15) −0.31 to − 0.04
Education 3.38 (1.39) 3.36 (1.38) 3.44 (1.51) 3.48 (1.46) 4.05 (1.93) 5.16 (1.47) 0.60 to 1.41
Modern market 4.76 (3.33) 4.73 (3.03) 4.60 (2.92) 4.38 (2.89) 4.62 (2.84) 4.98 (2.85) −0.20 to 0.12
Sanitation 6.02 (3.20) 6.49 (3.02) 6.72 (2.95) 6.90 (2.90) 7.36 (2.72) 7.31 (2.36) −0.83 to − 0.16
Total score 59.2 (18.3) 62.7 (20.4) 64.5 (20.5) 67.8 (19.6) 71.3 (19.5) 73.7 (17.6) −0.35 to 0.04
  1. M item mean, SD standard deviation