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Table 2 Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for daily pain in relation to self-efficacy, short sleep duration, and symptoms of depression (n = 12,867)

From: Associations between pain, self-efficacy, sleep duration, and symptoms of depression in adolescents: a cross-sectional survey

  Head OR (95% CI) Shoulders/neck OR (95% CI) Joints/muscles OR (95% CI) Stomach OR (95% CI) Total daily pain OR (95% CI)
Explanatory variables High self-efficacy 1.0 (1.0–1.0) 1.0 (1.0–1.0) 1.0 (1.0–1.0) 1.0 (1.0–1.0) 1.0 (1.0–1.0)
Short sleep duration 1.2 (1.0–1.6) 1.3 (1.3–2.0)* 1.1 (0.9–1.5) 1.7 (1.2–2.4)** 1.4 (1.2–1.6)***
Symptoms of depression 3.7 (3.0–4.6)*** 3.9 (3.1–4.8)*** 4.3 (3.3–5.6)*** 5.5 (4.1–7.4)*** 3.9 (3.3–4.6)***
Control variables Age 1.1 (1.0–1.2) 1.1 (1.0–1.2) 1.0 (0.9–1.1) 0.9 (0.8–1.1) 1.0 (1.0–1.1)
Gender: girls 2.9 (2.3–3.7)*** 2.0 (1.6–2.4)*** 1.1 (0.8–1.4) 1.5 (1.1–2.0)* 2.0 (1.7–2.4)***
Low maternal education 0.7 (0.6–0.9)* 1.0 (0.8–1.2) 0.9 (0.7–1.2) 0.9 (0.6–1.2) 0.9 (0.7–1.0)
Low paternal education 1.0 (0.8–1.3) 1.1 (0.9–1.4) 1.0 (0.8–1.3) 1.1 (0.8–1.5) 1.0 (0.9–1.2)
High medication use 6.5 (5.4–8.0)*** 2.8 (2.3–3.4)*** 3.0 (2.3–3.8)*** 3.2 (2.4–4.2)*** 4.3 (3.7–5.0)***
  1. *p < 0.05
  2. **p < 0.01
  3. ***p < 0.001