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Table 2 Attitudes, knowledge, and protective behaviours by type of vulnerable group

From: Public attitudes to, and behaviours taken during, hot weather by vulnerable groups: results from a national survey in England

  All Not vulnerable Potentially vulnerable Vulnerable
Attitudes to hot weather [% of respondents that strongly agree or agree (95%CI)]
 I love hot weather 57.7 (54.5–60.8) 60.4 (56.8–63.8) 49.9 (42.0–57.7) 48.7 (38.0–59.6)
 Hot weather is a risk to my health 31.1 (28.3–34.1) 26.9 (23.9–30.0) 45.3 (37.6–53.4) 41.8 (31.0–53.5)
Effectiveness of heat protection behaviours as [% of respondents rated behaviour very or completely effective (95%CI)]
 Staying out of sun 11 am-3 pm 66.2 (63.0–69.1) 67.3 (63.7–70.6) 58.8 (50.7–66.5) 71.2 (60.3–80.1)
 Drinking cool fluids 72.5 (69.6–75.3) 73.6 (70.3–76.8) 73.3 (65.6–79.8) 60.8 (49.0–71.5)
 Covering skin with clothing 66.4 (63.2–69.4) 65.9 (62.2–69.4) 68.0 (59.8–75.2) 67.6 (55.7–77.6)
 Limiting physical activity 64.2 (60.9–67.2) 64.5 (60.8–68.0) 62.3 (54.1–69.8) 64.8 (52.6–75.4)
 Use electric fan 38.0 (34.9–41.2) 35.4 (31.9–39.0) 51.6 (43.8–59.4) 34.0 (24.1–45.6)
 Close curtains on exposed windows 47.6 (44.5–50.8) 47.0 (43.4–50.6) 44.3 (36.7–52.2) 60.5 (49.2–70.7)
 Close exposed windows during day 20.1 (17.6–22.8) 19.7 (16.9–22.8) 18.7 (12.7–26.6) 27.0 (19.0–36.9)
 Open windows at night 63.1 (60.0–66.1) 63.9 (60.4–67.3) 58.7 (50.6–66.3) 65.1 (54.6–74.3)
 Avoid alcohol 45.2 (42.0–48.4) 45.6 (42.0–49.3) 45.2 (37.5–53.2) 41.2 (31.1–52.2)
Experienced adverse health effects as a result of hot weather or heat [% of respondents (95%CI)]
 None 47.2 (44.1–50.3) 47.1 (43.5–50.7) 37.8 (30.7–45.4) 68.3 (56.7–78.0)
 Dehydration/intense thirst 20.2 (17.6–23.0) 19.8 (17.0–23.0) 27.0 (19.6–35.8) 8.7 (4.8–15.1)
 Sunburn 18.2 (15.6–21.0) 18.7 (16.0–21.7) 21.5 (14.4–30.8) 6.3 (1.3–24.8)
 Heat rash/red and dry skin 14.0 (11.7–16.8) 12.5 (10.1–15.3) 22.3 (15.4–31.1) 11.1 (4.5–24.9)
 Headaches 25.8 (23.0–28.8) 27.1 (23.8–30.7) 29.3 (22.8–36.8) 5.9 (3.0–11.4)
 Dizziness 9.1 (7.3–11.2) 6.8 (5.1–9.0) 17.5 (12.5–23.9) 12.9 (5.6–26.7)
 Nausea or vomiting 2.9 (1.8–4.5) 2.0 (1.2–3.3) 5.3 (2.2–11.9) 6.1 (1.2–25.5)
 Muscle weakness or cramps 6.4 (4.9–8.4) 4.2 (3.0–5.8) 16.8 (10.9–25.1) 6.2 (2.9–12.6)
 A high temperature 6.5 (4.8–8.6) 5.9 (4.1–8.4) 8.2 (5.2–12.8) 8.3 (2.5–24.3)
 Irritability 21.3 (18.7–24.1) 19.2 (16.5–22.1) 33.5 (25.9–42.0) 15.2 (7.6–28.1)
 A need to contact health services (e.g., a GP, an ambulance) 1.4 (0.6–2.9) 0.9 (0.3–2.3) 1.0 (0.3–4.0) 6.7 (1.6–24.4)
Mean number of adverse health effects 1.3 (0.1) 1.2 (0.1) 1.8 (1.5) 1.0 (0.3)
Base (unweighted): All respondents 1872 1422 307 143
Heard and acted on health advice [% respondents (95%CI)]
 Not heard advice 49.0 (45.8–52.2) 49.7 (46.0–53.5) 51.6 (43.6–59.5) 36.1 (26.4–47.1)
 Heard advice but did not change behaviour 29.1 (26.3–32.0) 29.7 (26.5–33.1) 22.8 (17.4–29.4) 37.1 (26.3–49.4)
 Heard advice and changed behaviour 21.9 (19.3–24.8) 20.6 (17.6–23.9) 25.6 (19.2–33.4) 26.8 (18.5–37.1)
Protective behaviours taken [% respondents always or often took protective behaviours during 2017 heat alert period (95%CI)]
 Staying out of sun 11 am-3 pm 46.6 (43.4–49.8) 44.8 (41.2–48.5) 48.6 (40.7–56.6) 59.2 (47.9–68.7)
 Drinking cool fluids 87.3 (84.9–89.4) 88.6 (85.9–90.8) 84.8 (77.6–90.0) 80.6 (71.3–87.4)
 Covering skin with clothing 50.9 (47.7–54.2) 49.3 (45.6–53.0) 51.7 (43.6–59.6) 65.0 (54.2–74.5)
 Limiting physical activity 56.3 (53.1–59.6) 54.5 (50.7–58.2) 57.5 (49.2–65.4) 71.8 (60.4–80.9)
 Use electric fan 39.3 (36.1–42.6) 38.6 (35.0–42.3) 46.3 (38.4–54.4) 31.0 (20.8–43.5)
 Close curtains on exposed windows 47.7 (44.5–51.0) 46.5 (42.9–50.3) 49.6 (41.6–57.6) 55.3 (43.9–66.2)
 Close exposed windows during day 34.9 (31.9–38.0) 33.2 (29.9–36.7) 34.3 (26.8–42.8) 52.4 (41.3–63.3)
 Open windows at night 87.1 (84.5–89.3) 88.2 (85.1–90.8) 86.2 (80.3–90.5) 78.4 (69.1–85.5)
 Avoid alcohol 51.2 (47.9–54.4) 47.7 (44.0–51.5) 61.1 (52.6–68.9) 62.8 (52.2–72.3)
Mean number of protective behaviours always/often taken (sd) 5.0 (2.1) 4.9 (2.1) 5.2 (2.0) 5.6 (2.2)
Base (unweighted): In England during level 3 heat alert 1787 1356 295 136