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Table 2 Characteristics of the study population

From: Determinants of maternal health four weeks after delivery: cross-sectional findings from the KUNO-kids health study

  Mothers (n = 1428)
Characteristic N mean value / absolute number [Minimum; Maximum] or %
Socioeconomic factors
Age (years) 1414 34.45 19;49
Single mother 1404   
    yes   25 1.8%
    no   1379 98.2%
Health insurance 1402   
    statutory   1170 83.5%
    private   228 16.3%
    other   4 0.3%
Educational status 1400   
    None   2 0.1%
    Low1   103 7.4%
    Medium2   449 32.1%
    High3   841 60.1%
    Other   5 0.4%
Employment before maternity leave 1402   
    Yes   1265 90.2%
    No   137 9.8%
Occupational group 1259   
    Employee   1001 79.5%
    Worker   19 1.5%
    In training   9 0.7%
    Self-employed   42 3.3%
    Civil servant   165 13.1%
    Graduate in liberal profession   15 1.2%
    Other   8 0.7%
Migration background 1428   
    None   1272 90.4%
    Yes   135 9.6%
Psychosocial factors
Subjective position within society (Mac Arthur Scale) 1390 6.70 1.00;10.00
F-Sozu Score 1399 4.45 1.21;5.00
Social and emotional strain 1382   
    Yes   369 26.7%
    No   1013 73.3%
PSI
 Personal limitations 1420   
   10.02 4;20
 Parental competence 1420   
   7.48 4;20
 Parent-child bond 1413   
   8.41 4;20
Domestic environment
Size of current residence per person living in the household (in m2) 1382 37.86 7.50;166.67
Humidity stains on the walls 1381   
 Mold   186 13.5%
 No   1195 86.5%
Smoking inside the house 1408   
 Yes   7 0.5%
 No   1401 99.5%
Lifestyle factors    
Drinking alcohol 1 year before pregnancy 1410   
 Yes   933 66.2%
 No   477 33.8%
Drinking alcohol during pregnancy 1418   
 Yes   22 1.6%
 No   1396 98.4%
Drinking alcohol since delivery 1414   
 Yes   214 15.1%
 No   1200 84.9%
Smoker lifetime (> 100 cigarettes) 1407   
 Yes   601 42.7%
 No   806 57.3%
Smoking during pregnancy 1384   
 Yes   30 2.2%
 No   1354 97.8%
Smoking since delivery 533   
 Yes   38 7.13%
 No   495 92.8%
BMI before pregnancy 1412   
 underweight   31 2.2%
 normal   857 60.7%
 overweight   351 24.9%
 obese   173 12.3%
Diet 1401   
 Healthy   663 47.3%
 Rather unhealthy   738 52.7%
Physical activity 1414   
 None or rather seldom   636 45.0%
 Regularly   778 55.0%
Health care utilization
Doctors’ consultations during pregnancy 1422   
   4,66 0.86
History of psychiatric diseases 1245   
 Yes   141 11.3%
 No   1104 88.7%
History of somatic diseases 1400   
 Yes   543 38.8%
    No   857 61.2%
Child and birth related factors
Birth mode 1428   
 C-section   396 27.7%
 Other   1032 72.3%
First child 1419   
 Yes   821 57.9%
 No   598 42.1%
Preterm delivery 1420   
 Yes   85 6.0%
 No   1335 94%
Season of birth 1428   
 Winter   696 48.7%
 Summer   732 51.3%
VAS child 1400 93.45 5;100
Breastfeeding 1414   
 Yes   1156 81.8%
 No   258 18.2%
Outcomes N mean value [Minimum; Maximum]
Self-rated health mothers: 1355   
   86.17 (SD:11.90) 8;100
SF-12-Score4: 1345   
 Mental component score (MCS)   47.28 (SD:10.64) 7.87;65.84
 Physical component score (PCS)   47.63 (SD:8.22) 19.02;68.53
  1. 1Low: Haupt−/Volksschulabschluss in Germany.
  2. 2Medium: Realschulabschluss, Polytechnische Oberschule.
  3. 3High: Fachhochschulreife, Abitur
  4. 4No missings acceptable.