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Table 2 Secondary Outcome and Covariate Measures

From: A youth empowerment intervention to prevent childhood obesity: design and methods for a cluster randomized trial of the H2GO! program

Child Outcomes (self-report)
 SSB and water consumption (secondary outcomes) A 15-item beverage intake questionnaire (BEVQ) will be used to assess frequency and amount of SSB and water consumption and energy intake (kcalories) from SSBs. The BEVQ has demonstrated reliability and validity in assessing beverage intake against 24-h recalls among youth [52].
 Beverage intake self-efficacy Self-efficacy to reduce SSB intake and increase water intake will be assessed using items from a nutrition self-efficacy scale validated among youth ages 8–11 years [53].
 Diet Frequency of consuming specific foods/food groups (e.g., vegetables, fruits, fast food, desserts) will be assessed using items from the School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN) monitoring system [54]. These items have been validated for use by children in grades 4 and higher and were selected for their brevity and low response burden.
 Physical activity Time spent outdoors [55] and number of days during the past week children participated in ≥ 60 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [56] will be used to assess child physical activity.
 Screen time Hours/day watching TV away from school (on TV or through a mobile or computer device) and hours/day playing video or computer games or using a computer for something other than schoolwork (including time on the Internet, instant messaging) away from school [54] will be used to assess screen time.
 Youth empowerment The 8-item Sociopolitical Control Scale for Youth (SPCS-Y)  [57], which has been validated as a measure of empowerment among urban youth [58], will be used to assess youth empowerment. The SPCS-Y uses a 10-point, phrase completion response format and consists of a leadership/competence subscale and a policy/social control subscale [59].
 Socio-demographics Child gender, age, and race/ethnicity will be assessed via brief survey items.
Parent Outcomes (self-report)
 SSB and water consumption Items from the beverage intake questionnaire (BEVQ-15) [60] assessing frequency and amount of beverages consumed will be used to assess SSB and water intake and SSB energy intake. The BEVQ-15 has been validated against 24-h dietary recalls among adults, including low-literacy populations [60].
 Home SSB availability One survey item assessing how often SSBs are available at home (5-point Likert scale ranging from “never” to “always”) [61] will be used to measure SSB home availability.
 Socio-demographics Gender, age, race/ethnicity, education, income, occupation, and child eligibility for free/reduced priced lunch will be assessed via survey items.