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Table 2 Overview of findings

From: Barriers and facilitators to the use of e-health by older adults: a scoping review

Factor Category Barrier Facilitator
Individual Intrinsic Ageing limitations: reduction of hearing, sight, memory, and fine motor control [34, 36,37,38,39].
Perceived self-efficacy [35, 38, 40, 41].
Lacking confidence in e-health [42].
Fear and dislike of technology [37].
No interest in learning [37, 42].
Desire to learn [34, 36,37,38, 41].
Motivation to make a lifestyle change [19, 43].
Altruism: wanting to contribute to scientific progress [19, 41, 43].
  Extrinsic Lack of experience/skills with e-health [35, 37] or technology [36, 38, 41].
Lack of knowledge of e-health [34, 35].
Previous negative experience [40].
Unmet expectations [37].
Lack of need to change [34, 36, 37, 39].
Fear that traditional services my perish [37].
Disbelief in efficacy of e-health [37, 39, 42].
Lack of external accountability [44, 45].
Inability to incorporate into routine [44].
Required effort [35, 38].
Cultural limitations such as language barriers and e-health detracting from time with family [38].
Belief that e-health services are of benefit [19, 34, 37, 40].
Convenience of e-health [45].
Ability to incorporate into current routine [40, 44, 46].
Previous experience and skills [19, 35, 36, 40].
Previous experience with e-health and required skills [19, 35, 36, 40].
Positive experience with technology generally [37].
Opportunity to learn new information [43].
Technological Functional Small screen and text [44].
Small icons, lack of colour contrast [36].
Complex functionality [42].
Poor functionality [35, 37, 41].
Ease of use such as audio feedback, and large and clear visual display [35, 36, 40, 41].
  Content Lack of alerts [41].
Alert fatigue: reminders/emails/texts [46].
Condescending and impersonalized communication, inability to respond to reminders [46].
Overwhelming and difficult to understand content [35, 38].
Too much content on one page [44]
Personalized content [37, 44,45,46].
Use of reminders/alerts [41, 44, 46].
Use of images [46].
  Availability Lack of access to electronic equipment [38]
Cost of electronic equipment and internet service [34, 36].
Free or low-cost electronic equipment [36].
Relational Technological Support No training/support to learn [36, 38].
No one to help troubleshoot issues [41].
Reliance on family for guidance, and lack of family’s patience and understanding while learning [38].
Training/support to learn [36,37,38,39, 41].
Dedicated coach for training and continued support [41].
Peer-to-peer platform to share experiences [44].
Option for family/carer to provide support [34].
  Social Support Lack of social interaction [37, 45].
Absence of interpersonal communication [35].
Communication through technology considered an ‘inauthentic experience’ [35].
Socially inclusive and community-based information [38].
Environmental Location Poor/unreliable internet [45]. Availability to rural/remote populations [45].
Organizational Privacy Health information concerns [35, 42, 46].  
  Trust Unknown accuracy of information [37, 38, 42].
Not knowing who people are communicating with [35].
Concern over management of emergency situations [37].
Concern over Western Medicine’s prioritization of medication [38].
Recommandation from physician [36, 43].
Content designed by experts in the field [45].
Access to specialists through platform [34].
Authenticity: platform with clear credentials [35].
  Data sharing Lack of communication between health platforms [37]. Sharing of health information between health care providers [39, 44, 46].
  1. Note. Individual = persons’ individual attributes including physicality, cognition, experience, skills, and knowledge; technological = the use of the technology, including device functionality, content, and availability; relational = person-to-person engagement and support; environmental = location context and characteristics; organizational = structure, capabilities, and development of the service