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Table 4 Incidece rate ratio of injury-related ED visits due to cause-specific injury by food insecurity status in overall sample

From: Examining the relationship between food insecurity and causes of injury in Canadian adults and adolescents

  Food-secure Marginal FI Moderate FI Severe FI
Unadjusted
 Intentional injuries reference 2.76 (1.84–4.14) 3.95 (2.98–5.22) 6.53 (4.86–8.76)
  Self-harm reference 3.05 (1.45–6.41) 3.67 (2.19–6.15) 6.18 (3.61–10.60)
  Violence reference 2.63 (1.70–4.09) 4.07 (2.92–5.65) 6.67 (4.69–9.49)
 Non-intentional injuries reference 1.16 (1.08–1.26) 1.40 (1.30–1.50) 1.79 (1.65–1.95)
  Fall reference 1.12 (0.97–1.28) 1.35 (1.21–1.51) 1.76 (1.53–2.02)
   On same level reference 1.16 (0.95–1.42) 1.25 (1.06–1.47) 1.43 (1.15–1.77)
   On stairs reference 1.21 (0.84–1.75) 1.88 (1.45–2.42) 2.68 (1.98–3.62)
   Others reference 1.04 (0.84–1.28) 1.30 (1.10–1.55) 1.83 (1.49–2.24)
  Medical complication reference 0.92 (0.71–1.18) 1.32 (0.96–1.81) 1.57 (1.22–2.03)
   Surgical reference 0.95 (0.70–1.31) 1.26 (0.90–1.76) 1.63 (1.23–2.17)
   Non-surgical reference 0.86 (0.57–1.31) 1.40 (0.78–2.51) 1.49 (0.94–2.34)
  Struck-by reference 1.35 (1.10–1.65) 1.56 (1.33–1.83) 1.99 (1.47–2.71)
   Falling objects reference 1.39 (0.87–2.23) 1.53 (1.03–2.27) 1.68 (1.00–2.80)
   In sports reference 1.15 (0.80–1.67) 1.06 (0.76–1.46) 0.77 (0.47–1.28)
      In non-sports reference 1.48 (1.12–1.96) 1.97 (1.59–2.43) 3.06 (2.05–4.57)
  Transport reference 1.36 (1.07–1.73) 1.47 (1.19–1.83) 2.07 (1.55–2.75)
   Pedestrian or cyclist reference 1.28 (0.77–2.11) 1.87 (1.15–3.05) 1.91 (1.20–3.04)
   Motor vehicle reference 1.37 (1.03–1.82) 1.29 (1.01–1.65) 2.15 (1.52–3.04)
  Overexertion reference 1.14 (0.92–1.42) 1.56 (1.32–1.85) 1.81 (1.45–2.25)
  Animal bite or sting reference 1.26 (0.90–1.77) 1.25 (0.91–1.71) 1.92 (1.37–2.70)
  Skin piercing reference 1.18 (0.75–1.85) 1.11 (0.77–1.60) 2.15 (1.50–3.10)
  Poisoning reference 0.96 (0.44–2.08) 1.74 (0.88–3.43) 1.87 (0.90–3.87)
  Other non-intentional injuries reference 1.19 (1.04–1.36) 1.34 (1.19–1.52) 1.76 (1.55–2.00)
Adjusted
 Intentional injuries reference 1.37 (0.91–2.05) 1.54 (1.14–2.10) 1.81 (1.29–2.53)
  Self-harm reference 1.61 (0.77–3.34) 1.51 (0.84–2.72) 1.87 (1.03–3.40)
  Violence reference 1.27 (0.81–2.00) 1.56 (1.09–2.21) 1.79 (1.19–2.67)
 Non-intentional injuries reference 1.01 (0.92–1.10) 1.14 (1.06–1.24) 1.34 (1.22–1.46)
  Fall reference 1.07 (0.93–1.23) 1.22 (1.08–1.37) 1.43 (1.24–1.65)
   On same level reference 1.10 (0.90–1.35) 1.11 (0.94–1.32) 1.15 (0.92–1.45)
   On stairs reference 1.16 (0.80–1.68) 1.71 (1.30–2.26) 2.24 (1.62–3.10)
   Others reference 1.00 (0.81–1.24) 1.18 (0.98–1.42) 1.49 (1.20–1.85)
  Medical complication reference 0.83 (0.54–1.27) 1.12 (0.77–1.61) 1.39 (1.06–1.82)
   Surgical reference 0.84 (0.53–1.33) 1.05 (0.70–1.59) 1.32 (0.94–1.85)
   Non-surgical reference 0.83 (0.44–1.55) 1.17 (0.61–2.27) 1.49 (0.99–2.25)
  Struck-by reference 1.06 (0.86–1.30) 1.20 (1.01–1.43) 1.43 (1.07–1.91)
   Falling objects reference 1.15 (0.72–1.84) 1.20 (0.78–1.83) 1.19 (0.69–2.04)
   In sports reference 0.97 (0.67–1.41) 1.02 (0.73–1.43) 0.89 (0.52–1.52)
   In non-sports reference 1.14 (0.86–1.52) 1.40 (1.11–1.75) 1.83 (1.26–2.66)
  Transport reference 1.03 (0.81–1.32) 1.05 (0.85–1.31) 1.29 (0.94–1.75)
   Pedestrian or cyclist reference 0.87 (0.52–1.45) 1.15 (0.73–1.83) 1.00 (0.58–1.74)
   Motor vehicle reference 1.06 (0.80–1.42) 0.95 (0.73–1.23) 1.38 (0.96–1.99)
  Overexertion reference 0.94 (0.75–1.17) 1.25 (1.04–1.50) 1.31 (1.04–1.66)
  Animal bite or sting reference 1.27 (0.90–1.80) 1.20 (0.86–1.68) 1.60 (1.08–2.36)
  Skin piercing reference 1.05 (0.67–1.65) 0.99 (0.68–1.45) 1.80 (1.21–2.66)
  Poisoning reference 0.62 (0.10–3.88) 1.16 (0.35–3.86) 1.65 (1.05–2.59)
  Other non-intentional injuries reference 1.00 (0.87–1.15) 1.09 (0.96–1.23) 1.32 (1.15–1.52)
  1. Notes: ED = emergency department. FI = food insecurity. The “adjusted” Poisson models controlled for sex, age, race-ethnicity, immigrant status, household income, income imputation status, highest education in household, housing tenure, household type, jurisdiction of residence, smoking status, past-year alcohol consumption, CCHS cycle, and number of ED visits in the year before