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Table 1 Frequency distribution of the consumption of vitamin A supplementation status according to selected characteristics in Rural and Urban areas of Bangladesh

From: Rural-urban determinants of vitamin a deficiency among under 5 children in Bangladesh: Evidence from National Survey 2017–18

Characteristics of the study sample Vitamin A capsule consumption status
Urban children Rural children
No (%) Yes (%) No (%) Yes (%)
Division (a*, b**)
 Barisal 65 (24.9) 196 (75.1) 180 (29.9) 422 (70.1)
 Chittagong 114 (23.8) 366 (76.3) 228 (25.2) 678 (74.8)
 Dhaka 211 (29.8) 496 (70.2) 161 (30.4) 369 (69.6)
 Khulna 71 (22.3) 248 (77.7) 150 (27.4) 397 (72.6)
 Mymensing 55 (21.9) 196 (78.1) 185 (25.1) 553 (74.9)
 Rajshahi 76 (29.1) 185 (78.1) 153 (25.1) 456 (74.9)
 Rangpur 71 (25.2) 211 (74.8) 145 (22.4) 503 (77.6)
 Sylhet 97 (27.7) 253 (72.3) 259 (29.7) 614 (70.3)
Religion (a*, b**)
 Islam 711 (26.6) 1961 (73.4) 1364 (27.3) 3624 (72.7)
 Other than Islam 49 (20.5) 190 (79.5) 97 (20.9) 368 (79.1)
Sex of household head (a, b)
 Male 689 (26.2) 1945 (73.8) 1268 (27.1) 3416 (72.9)
 Female 71 (25.6) 206 (74.4) 193 (25.1) 576 (74.9)
Wealth index (a*, b)
 Poorest 86 (28.1) 220 (71.9) 422 (27.7) 1102 (72.3)
 Poor 66 (27.6) 173 (72.4) 387 (26.9) 1052 (73.1)
 Middle 101 (26.0) 287 (74.0) 301 (27.3) 802 (72.7)
 Richer 221 (28.4) 557 (71.6) 230 (26.2) 647 (73.8)
 Richest 286 (23.8) 914 (76.2) 121 (23.7) 389 (76.3)
Child’s sex (a*, b)
 Male 381 (26.0) 1083 (74.0) 756 (26.1) 2136 (73.9)
 Female 379 (26.2) 1068 (73.8) 705 (27.5) 1856 (72.5)
Age of Child (a***, b***)
 06–12 months 91 (30.3) 209 (69.7) 191 (29.4) 459 (70.6)
 13–24 months 88 (15.5) 481 (84.5) 184 (16.6) 923 (83.4)
 25–36 months 68 (12.3) 487 (87.7) 190 (18.0) 863 (82.0)
 37–48 months 115 (21.5) 420 (78.5) 197 (19.0) 840 (81.0)
 49–59 months 111 (19.9) 446 (80.1) 209 (21.8) 748 (78.2)
Number of children (a*, b***)
 1 child 470 (25.2) 1395 (74.8) 756 (24.2) 2363 (75.8)
 2 child 186 (26.5) 516 (73.5) 447 (28.9) 1099 (71.1)
 3 or more child 34 (33.0) 69 (67.0) 94 (30.4) 215 (69.6)
Mother’s age (a***, b***)
 15–20 years 159 (33.4) 317 (66.6) 338 (32.2) 713 (67.8)
 21–25 years 253 (25.8) 728 (74.2) 523 (26.6) 1446 (73.4)
 26–30 years 182 (22.8) 615 (77.2) 364 (26.2) 1027 (73.8)
 31–35 years 116 (26.0) 331 (74.0) 166 (22.5) 571 (77.5)
 35 or more years 50 (23.8) 160 (76.2) 70 (23.0) 235 (77.0)
Mother’s education (a***, b**)
 No education 61 (31.4) 133 (68.6) 118 (29.1) 287 (70.9)
 Primary 223 (30.7) 504 (69.3) 485 (28.8) 1198 (71.2)
 Secondary 306 (24.2) 958 (75.8) 703 (26.3) 1974 (73.7)
 Higher 170 (23.4) 556 (76.6) 155 (22.5) 533 (77.5)
Father’s education (a**, b*)
 No education 103 (32.3) 216 (67.7) 250 (26.9) 678 (73.1)
 Primary 225 (27.0) 608 (73.0) 544 (27.7) 1422 (72.3)
 Secondary 235 (26.1) 667 (73.9) 473 (27.4) 1253 (72.6)
 Higher 182 (22.8) 618 (77.3) 169 (22.6) 578 (77.4)
Breastfeeding status (a***, b***)
 No 247 (18.7) 1075 (81.3) 409 (19.7) 1672 (80.3)
 Yes 513 (32.3) 1076 (67.7) 1052 (31.2) 2320 (68.8)
  1. arepresent the significance level associated with rural area children;
  2. brepresent the significance level associated with urban area children;
  3. *p < 0.10; **p < 0.05; and ***p < 0.01