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Table 2 Mean dietary intake of participants by categories of DPI(n = 2326)

From: The relation between dietary phytochemical index and metabolic syndrome and its components in a large sample of Iranian adults: a population-based study

  Total
n = 2326
Q1
n = 581
Q2
n = 582
Q3
n = 582
Q4
n = 581
P*
Variables mean SD mean SD mean SD mean SD mean SD  
Dietary PI 23.13 9.95 12.5 3.15 19.4 1.36 24.53 1.79 36.08 9.2 < 0.001
Energy (kca/day) 2863.76 1298.27 3520.42 1440.08 2650.68 1219.47 2495.22 1110.39 2789.73 1157.02 < 0.001
Protein(g/day) 113.8 58.98 133.26 69.13 107.93 57.99 102.37 46.91 111.65 55.18 < 0.001
Carbohydrate(g/day) 402.76 213.28 498.40 277.58 363.92 177.14 345.38 160.65 403.52 184.49 < 0.001
Total Fat(g/day) 111.76 72.15 156.78 93.97 101.80 59.99 92.27 52.12 96.24 54.41 < 0.001
Cholesterol(mg/day) 394.11 382.97 501.18 578.68 385.51 325.27 352.21 261.88 337.64 248.73 < 0.001
SFA (g/day) 31.11 18.12 41.75 23.15 29.47 16.17 26.84 13.60 26.38 13.29 < 0.001
MUFA (g/day) 34.36 24.52 48.61 32.36 31.65 21.08 28.07 17.59 29.13 18.16 < 0.001
PUFA (g/day) 28.54 24.21 36.71 31.02 25.40 20.29 23.20 15.67 28.85 24.98 < 0.001
EPA(mg/day) 0.02 0.08 0.02 0.09 0.02 0.1 0.02 0.07 0.02 0.05 0.742
DHA(mg/day) 0.07 0.21 0.07 0.25 0.07 0.26 0.07 0.19 0.06 0.14 0.686
Total Fiber(g/day) 27.68 24.21 33.70 33.24 22.83 15.83 24.48 22.51 29.71 20.31 < 0.001
Vitamin E (mg/day) 11.12 11.38 12.43 12.92 11.49 11.20 10.52 10.44 10.02 10.67 < 0.001
Vitamin A (RAE/day) 23.38 33.91 19.11 15.64 19.77 27.55 20.07 18.52 34.57 55.62 < 0.001
Vitamin D(μg/day) 1.49 2.40 1.85 3.67 1.46 1.73 1.48 2.33 1.18 1.04 < 0.001
Vitamin K(μg/day) 166.04 243.82 191.19 349.82 160.03 224.99 160.26 175.61 152.70 182.90 < 0.001
Vitamin C(mg/day) 207.27 181.14 164.09 111.82 182.77 135.30 202.85 142.61 279.43 269.46 < 0.001
Folic acid(μg/day) 371.68 211.10 377.25 194.99 336.60 200.11 341.72 169.03 431.26 257.21 < 0.001
VitaminB12(μg/day) 6.03 5.92 7.51 7.01 6.07 5.75 5.42 4.33 5.1302 6.02 < 0.001
Magnesium(mg/day) 335.41 172.25 363.17 176.91 308.04 165.64 307.91 154.04 362.64 182.63 < 0.001
Potassium(mg/day) 4072.06 2098.04 4197.37 1950.44 3652.56 1823.79 3810.11 1869.87 4629.36 2536.55 < 0.001
Zinc (mg/day) 11.90 5.93 13.66 7.05 11.17 5.63 10.77 4.71 11.98 5.67 < 0.001
Fe(mg/day) 42.33 56.92 38.28 46.98 38.99 44.58 39.77 44.42 52.29 81.72 < 0.001
Fruits(g/day) 585.45 512.03 386.67 264.58 495.06 356.73 604.30 418.80 855.89 745.9 < 0.001
Vegetables (g/day) 216.26 246.33 198. 7 235.6 196.85 158.86 215.69 297.83 253.82 267.4 < 0.001
Legumes (g/day) 47.25 58.01 45.42 59.78 40.95 38.98 44.11 36.19 58.55 83.09 < 0.001
Nuts (g/day) 23.01 34.01 25.84 34.20 17.21 20.59 18.02 22.16 31.01 49.18 < 0.001
Whole grains (g/day) 73.55 68.49 49.41 53.29 68.66 51.01 77.01 59.27 99.11 92.54 < 0.001
Fructose (g/day) 30.67 28.36 36.15 41.40 26.82 20.24 26.78 18.95 32.94 25.98 < 0.001
  1. DHA Docosahexaenoic acid, MUFA Monounsaturated fatty acid, SFA Saturated fatty acid, PUFA Polyunsaturated fatty acids, EPA Eicosapentaenoic acid
  2. DPI Dietary phytochemical index, Data are shown mean ± SD, *Pvalues from ANOVA and were considered < 0.05 significant