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Table 1 Descriptive Statistics for all EMR Events at a Hospital Emergency Department, 2008–2014 (n = 180,829)

From: Provider Bias in prescribing opioid analgesics: a study of electronic medical Records at a Hospital Emergency Department

  (Percent) Number of EMR Events
Dependent Variable
 Prescribed opioida (33.00) 59,717
Contextual Variables
 ED crowdingb (mean; SD) 13.92 6.08
Time of day
12 am-5:59 am (ref.) (11.66) 21,070
6 am-11:59 am (29.40) 53,166
12 pm-5:59 pm (33.32) 60,257
6 pm-11:59 pm (25.62) 46,336
Weekend (26.43) 47,800
Year
2008 (14.20) 25,689
2009 (15.29) 27,651
2010 (14.27) 25,808
2011 (14.89) 26,919
2012 (14.37) 25,990
2013 (13.24) 23,945
2014 (13.73) 24,827
Prev. prescribed (#)c (median; IQR) 1 3
Demographic Variables
 Female (56.93) 102,952
 Age (mean; SD) 44.81 16.85
Race
White (ref.) (28.72) 51,925
Black (59.77) 108,088
Latino (7.25) 13,108
Asian (1.00) 1819
Other (3.26) 5889
Marital Status
Unmarried (ref.) (53.28) 96,340
Married (26.74) 48,345
Divorced (8.97) 16,236
Widowed (7.01) 12,667
Separated (4.00) 7241
  1. Sample includes all EMR events representing 63,513 unique individuals; a Whether visit resulted in an opioid prescription. b Number of emergency department patients in last 4 h. c Number of opioids ever prescribed to patient during all previous emergency department visits. SD standard deviation, IQR interquartile range