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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants according to severity scores of processed feeding, Porto Alegre, 2011–2016

From: Infant processed food consumption and their interaction to breastfeeding and growth in children up to six months old

Variables Total
(n = 236)
Gravity score food (GSF)
Null
(n = 28)
Mild
(n = 74)
Moderate
(n = 66)
Severe
(n = 68)
p
Family variables
 Family income (reais) * (median [25; 75]) 1800 [1200; 2718] 2750 [1500; 3126]a 2.000 [1463; 2800]ab 1.500 [1072; 2200]bc 1.336 [0,976; 2313]c < 0.001
 Maternal education (years) (median [25; 75]) 11.00 [8.00; 11.00] 11.00 [10.25; 12.37]d 11.00 [10.00; 11.00]d 9.00 [7.00; 11.00]e 8.50 [7.00; 11.00]e < 0.001
 Maternal age (years) (median [25; 75]) 27.00 [21.00; 33.00] 29.00 [25.00; 34.75]f 28.50 [23.75; 33.00]f 26.00 [21.00; 33.25]fg 23.50 [19.00; 30,75]g 0.003
 Pre-gestational BMI (Kg/m2) * (median [25; 75]) 25.0 [21.6; 28.9] 22.52 [20.41; 26.82]h 25.04 [21.68; 28.16]hi 27.64 [22.97; 31.84]i 24.43 [21.71; 26.99]hi 0.010
Number of past pregnancies (n (%))
 Primiparous 92 (39.0) 15 (53.57) 30 (40.54) 28 (42.42) 19 (27.94) 0.094
 Multiparous 144 (61.0) 13 (46.43) 44 (59.46) 38 (57.57) 49 (72.06)  
Adverse intrauterine environments (n (%))
 DM 49 (20.8) 7 (25.00) 10 (13.51)A 20 (30.30)B 12 (17.65) 0.013
 HD 25 (10.6) 1 (3.57) 11 (14.86) 3 (4.55) 10 (14.71)  
 Tobacco 43 (18.2) 7 (25.00) 6 (8.11)A 12 (18.18) 18 (26.47)B  
 IUGR 25 (10.6) 3 (10.71) 8 (10.81) 5 (7.58) 9 (13.24)  
 Control 94 (39.8) 10 (35.72) 39 (52.71)B 26 (39.39) 19 (27.93)A  
Infant variables
 Growth variables at birth (z-score) (mean (SD))
  WHZ 0.42 (1.09) 0.52 (1.17) 0.44 (0.90) 0.56 (1.12) 0.22 (1.22) 0.319
  BAZ 0.15 (1.09) 0.26 (1.19) 0.22 (0.94) 0.28 (1.03) −0.1 (1.22) 0.169
  WAZ −0.15 (1.06) −0.11 (1.22) −0.003 (0.96) −0.12 (1.00) −0.36 (1.12) 0.235
Cow’s milk introduction (days) (median [25; 75]) 60 [17; 120] 27 [27; 27] 90 [22; 157] 90 [16; 133] 60 [16; 90] 0.109
Formula milk introduction (days) (median [25; 75]) 22 [5; 81] 10 [1; 103] 15 [3; 90] 16 [4; 81] 30 [10; 75] 0.282
 Sex distribution (n (%))
  Female 128 (54.2) 15 (53.6) 46 (62.2) 30 (45.5) 37 (54.4) 0.272
  Male 108 (45.8) 13 (46.4) 28 (37.8) 36 (54.5) 31 (45.6)  
 Pacifier at 6 months* (n (%))
  No 84 (35.9) 16 (57.14) 25 (34.25) 24 (36.92) 19 (27.94) 0.058
  Yes 150 (64.1) 12 (42.86) 48 (65.75) 41 (63.08) 49 (72.06)  
 Bottle feeding at 6 months* (n (%))
  No 20 (8.5) 5 (17.86) 8 (10.96) 3 (4.62) 4 (5.88) 0.136
  Yes 214 (91.5) 23 (82.14) 65 (89.04) 62 (95.38) 64 (94.12)  
  1. Subtitle: BMI body mass index, DM diabetes mellitus, HD hypertensive disorders, IUGR intrauterine growth restriction, WHZ weight for height z-score, BAZ BMI for age z-score, WAZ weight for age z-score
  2. Different overwritten letters correspond to significantly different results
  3. Statistical tests: chi-square of proportions, for qualitative variables, and Kruskal Wallis with Dunn Post Hoc, or ANOVA one-way, with Tukey Post Hoc test, for quantitative variables. Some variables, highlighted with an asterisk (*), may not totalize 236 participants, due to missing data
  4. In the “adverse intrauterine environments” variable, the analysis of adjusted standardized residues smaller than 1.96 are overwritten with the capital letter A; and those greater than 1.96 are overwritten with the capital letter B