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Table 3 Multilevel analyses of factors associated with anemia, among married women in Ethiopia

From: Decision-making autonomy of women and other factors of anemia among married women in Ethiopia: a multilevel analysis of a countrywide survey

Variables Model l Model 2
AOR(95%CI)
Model 3 AOR(95%CI) Model 4 AOR(95%CI)
Individual -level characteristics(n = 9220)
Women’s autonomy
 Women’s decision-making power at home
   Low   1.00   1.00
   High   0.95 (0.72–1.17)   0.97 (0.79–1.21)
 Socio demographic and economic characteristics
  Women’s Age
   15–24   1.00   1.00
   25–34   0.867 (0.74–1.01)   0.88 (0.76–1.03)
   35–49   0.71 (0.58–0.86)*   0.73 (0.60–0.89)*
  Women’s age at first Marriage
    < 16   1.00   1.00
   16–20   1.06 (0.95–1.18)   1.05 (0.95–1.17)
    > 20   1.15 (0.98–136)   1.14 (0.97–1.34)
  Religion
   Orthodox   1.00   1.00
   Protestant   1.44 (1.17–1.77)*   1.37 (1.11–1.68)*
   Muslim   1.92 (1.60–2.31)*   1.62 (1.32–1.97)*
   Others   1.12 (0.74–1.69)   1.02 (0.67–1.53)
  Women’s education level
   No Education   1.00   1.00
   Primary   0.89 (0.79–1.01)   0.89 (0.45–1.28)
   Secondary   1.03 (0.84–1.27)   1.04 (0.84–1.28)
   Higher   0.87 (0.65–1.16)   0.87 (0.65.1.16)
  Education level of husband or partner
   No education   1.00   1.00
   Primary   0.95 (0.83–1.06)   0.95 (0.85–1.08)
   Secondary   1.10 (0.92–1.32)   1.10 (0.92–1.32)
   Higher   0.99 (0.80–1.24)   0.99 (0.79–1.24)
  Women’s employment
   No   1.00   1.00
   Yes   0.88 (0.79–0.89)*   0.88 (0.79–0.98)*
  Currently pregnant
   No   1.00   1.00
   Yes   1.21 (1.04–1.40)*   1.21 (1.04–1.40)*
  Currently breastfeeding
   No   1.00   1.00
   Yes   1.06 (0.94–1.20)   1.06 (0.94–1.20)
  Currently amenorrheic
   No   1.00   1.00
   Yes   1.01 (0.89–1.14)   1.01 (0.88–1.14)
  Number of children ever born
   0   1.00   1.00
   1–2   0.46 (1.21–1.77)*   1.45 (1.20–1.75)*
   3–4   1.65 (1.33–2.06)*   1.63 (1.31–2.03)*
   5+   2.01 (1.57–2.53)*   1.93 (1.53–2.46)*
  Current use of contraceptive
   No   1.00   1.00
   Yes   0.64 (0.53–0.78)*   0.66 (0.55–0.81)*
  Women ever chewed Chat
   No   1.00   1.00
   Yes   0.97 (0.82–1.15)   0.98 (0.83–1.17)
  Wealth Index
   Poor   1.00   1.00
   Non-Poor   0.82 (0.72–0.94)*   0.91 (0.79–1.04)
  History of terminated pregnancy
   No   1.00   1.00
   Yes   0.93 (0.80–1.08)   0.93 (0.80–1.08)
  Women’s BMI
    < 18.5   1.00   1.00
   18.5–24.9   0.88 (0.79–0.99)*   0.89 (0.80–1.08)
    ≥ 25   0.70 (0.58–0.85)*   0.71 (0.59–0.86)*
Health care access
  Covered by health insurance
   No   1.00   1.00
   Yes   1.08 (0.82–1.42)   1.12 (0.85–1.48)
  Visiting health facility in the last 12
   No   1.00   1.00
   Yes   0.95 (0.6–1.04)   0.96 (0.87–1.06)
Community-level characteristics
 Place of residence
  Urban    1.00 1.00
  Rural    1.47 (0.98–2.19) 1.10 (0.82–1.46)
 % of women with high decision-making autonomy
  Low    1.00 1.00
  Medium    0.36 (0.25–0.51)* 0.54 (0.40–0.73)*
  High    0.26 (0.18–0.38)* 0.50 (0.47–0.69)*
 % women with higher education
  Low    1.00 1.00
  Medium    0.72 (0.53–0.97)* 0.69 (0.54–1.09)
  High    0.93 (0.65–1.32) 0.89 (0.66–1.20)
 % of women with non-poor wealth index
  Low    1.00 1.00
  Medium    0.70 (0.49–1.01) 0.76 (0.56–1.03)
  High    0.66 (0.41–0.85)* 0.78 (0.52–0.97)*
 Measures of variation (random effect)
  ICC 0.46* 0.29* 0.39* 0.27*
  PCV (%) Ref. 50.7 23.2 56.4
  Model fit statistics
  BIC 14,845.3 13,538.1 14,722.2 13,484.7
  1. AOR Adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval, ICC intraclass correlation coefficient, BIC Bayesian information criterion, *: Significant at P-value < 0.05. Note: Boldface indicates the statistical significance values