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Table 2 Bivariate analyses of individual and group-level factors with Anemia among married women in Ethiopia

From: Decision-making autonomy of women and other factors of anemia among married women in Ethiopia: a multilevel analysis of a countrywide survey

  Anemic P-value
No% Yes%
Individual-level Characteristics(n = 9220)
Women’s autonomy
  Women’s decision-making power at home    < 0.001
   Low 50.8 24.7*  
   High 20.0 4.5  
 Socio demographic and economic characteristics
  Women’s Age
  15–24 16.9 6.8* 0.048
  25–34 29.5 12.5  
  35–49 24.4 9.9  
  Women’s age at first Marriage    < 0.001
    < 16 25.0 10.8*  
   16–20 31.3 13.4  
    > 20 14.5 5.0  
  Religion    < 0.001
   Orthodox 32.2 7.5*  
   Protestant 12.9 5.4  
   Muslim 24.4 15.9  
   Others 1.35 0.4  
  Women’s education level    < 0.001
   No Education 32.2 16.8*  
   Primary 22.8 7.9  
   Secondary 9.8 3.0  
   Higher 6.0 1.4  
  Education level of husband or partner    0.003
   No education 27.64 15.2*  
   Primary 23.4 8.6  
   Secondary 10.0 3.6  
   Higher 8.5 2.4  
  Women’s employment    < 0.001
   No 44.0 20.7*  
  Yes 26.9 8.5  
  Currently pregnant    < 0.001
   No 65.15 25.7*  
   Yes 5.7 3.4  
  Currently breastfeeding    < 0.001
   No 47.3 18.5*  
   Yes 23.5 10.7  
  Currently amenorrheic    < 0.001
   No 56.5 22.0  
   Yes 14.3 7.2  
  Number of children ever born    < 0.001
   0 8.5 2.2*  
   1–2 24.5 8.3  
   3–4 15.9 6.9  
   5+ 22.0 11.8  
  Current use of contraceptive    < 0.001
   No 43.55 22.8*  
   Yes 27.3 6.4  
  Women ever chewed Chat    0.064
   No 63.3 26.0  
   Yes 7.5 3.2  
  Wealth Index    < 0.001
   Poor 23.6 14.8*  
   Non-Poor 47.2 14.4  
  History of terminated pregnancy    0.039
   No 63.9 26.5  
   Yes 6.9 2.7  
  Women’s BMI    < 0.001
    < 18.5(underweight) 13.01 7.4*  
   18.5–24.9(normal weight) 46.5 18.0  
    ≥ 25(overweight) 11.3 3.8  
Health care access
  Covered by health insurance    < 0.001
   No 67.2 28.4*  
   Yes 3.6 0.8  
  Visiting health facility in the last 12    < 0.001
   No 35.15 16.5*  
   Yes 35.7 12.7  
Community-level characteristics
 Place of residence
  Urban 26.6 7.5*  
  Rural 44.2 21.7  
 % of women with high decision-making autonomy
  Low 17.5 14.3* < 0.001
  Medium 18.2 6.2  
  High 35.1 8.7  
 % women with higher education    < 0.001
  Low 22.0 12.5*  
  Medium 30.3 9.9  
  High 18.5 6.7  
 % of women with non-poor wealth index    < 0.001
  Low 15.2 11.5*  
  Medium 20.9 7.9  
  High 34.8 9.8  
 % women who chewed chat    0.347
  Low 47.6 19.9  
  High 23.2 9.3  
  1. * P < 0.05