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Table 1 Descriptive statistics and sex difference

From: Non-adherence to preventive behaviours during the COVID-19 epidemic: findings from a community study

  Total Males Females t-test/χ2 Effect size - Cohen d
Demographic variablesa
 Sex, Females N (%) 3247 (61.8)     
 Age, Mean (SD) 53.8 (14.4) 56.38 (14.19) 52.25 (14.37) 10.15*** 0.29
Education:
 Less than high school N (%) 683 (13.0) 319 (15.9) 364 (11.2) 42.1*** 0.09#
 High school N (%) 2374 (45.2) 807 (40.2) 1567 (48.3)   
 College or University N (%) 2197 (41.8) 881 (43.90) 1316 (40.50)   
Settlement type
 Budapest (capital) 952 (18.1) 372 (18.5) 514 (15.8) 14.2** 0.05#
 County-town 940 (17.9) 729 (36.3) 1322 (40.7)
 Other city 1787 (34.0) 596 (29.7) 889 (27.4)
 Village and smaller settlements 1575 (30.0) 310 (15.4) 522 (16.1)
Having any chronic disease N (%)b 1788 (34.0) 720 (36.6) 1068 (33.4) 5.34* 0.06
Preventive behavioursc Always N (%) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)   
 Washing hands when arrived home 4583 (88.7) 4.70 (0.79) 4.88 (0.50) 10.12*** 0.29
 Avoiding contacts while greetings (hugging, kissing) 4334 (83.5) 4.68 (0.84) 4.74 (0.74) 2.73** 0.08
 Avoiding handshake 4061 (78.4) 4.49 (0.96) 4.77 (0.70) 13.60*** 0.39
 Avoiding meeting with group of people 3932 (75.8) 4.41 (1.10) 4.68 (0.80) 10.07*** 0.29
 Avoiding public transportation 3691 (71.7) 4.35 (1.22) 4.44 (1.13) 2.63** 0.08
 Washing hand when outside home 3581 (69.3) 4.29 (1.10) 4.58 (0.92) 10.30*** 0.30
 Staying home, and leaving home only when it is necessary 3458 (66.8) 4.29 (1.06) 4.62 (0.78) 12.67*** 0.35
 Avoiding people who have high risk of complication (old people) 3343 (64.4) 4.31 (1.07) 4.50 (0.92) 6.93*** 0.19
 Taking vitamin supplementation 2873 (55.0) 3.82 (1.44) 4.13 (1.31) 8.21*** 0.23
 Using hand sanitizer 2285 (44.4) 2.89 (1.73) 3.71 (1.65) 17.20*** 0.49
 Keeping at least 2 m distance from others 2043 (39.6) 3.86 (1.16) 4.14 (1.00) 9.41*** 0.27
 Avoiding self-touching (face, mouth, eyes) 2067 (39.3) 3.76 (1.22) 4.16 (1.02) 12.83*** 0.37
 Wearing face mask 1043 (20.3) 2.42 (1.56) 2.73 (1.65) 6.67*** 0.19
 Wearing protective gloves 1021 (19.9) 2.37 (1.51) 2.79 (1.64) 9.20*** 0.26
 Storing food 540 (10.3) 2.44 (1.34) 2.64 (1.40) 5.11*** 0.15
Having someone in the household who are at risk of developing severe conditiond 3205 (60.0) 1262 (62.9) 1862 (57.3) 15.76*** 0.11
Number of days left home for work during the last 7 dayse 2.88 (2.40) 3.32 (2.56) 2.62 (2.26) 10.34*** 0.30
Number of days left home for shopping, pharmacy during the last 7 dayse 3.02 (1.81) 3.37 (1.97) 2.80 (1.67) 11.17*** 0.32
Number of days left home for other reasons during the last 7 dayse 1.83 (1.66) 2.01 (1.80) 1.72 (1.55) 6.14*** 0.18
  1. Note: Data are presented without the sampling weights. #: Phi coefficient. *** p < 0.001; ** p < 0.01. Boldfaced t-values are still significant after the Bonferroni correction of multiple testing (p < .002). a: No missing value. b: Number of missing values is 89 (1.7%). c: Numbers of missing or no responses were between 28 (0.5%) and 114 (2.1%). d: Number of missing values is 48 (0.9%). e: Numbers of missing values are between 12 (0.2) and 68 (1.3)