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Table 1 Description of COVID-19 death rate per 100,000 residents, risk index components, and socioeconomic status index according to quartiles of the risk index

From: A risk index for COVID-19 severity is associated with COVID-19 mortality in New York City

Variable Quartile 1 (lowest risk score; 21.46–40.26)
mean (SD)
Quartile 2 (40.27–48.15)
mean (SD)
Quartile 3 (48.16–55.01)
mean (SD)
Quartile 4 (highest risk score; 55.02–73.84)
mean (SD)
p-value
COVID-19 death rate per 100,000 109.72 (68.83) 192.78 (72.51) 251.98 (97.16) 284.16 (112.68) <  0.0001
Median age (years) 35.4 (3.31) 37.64 (3.81) 36.71 (4.26) 36.73 (6.23) 0.1326
Proportion white residents (%) 66.68 (15.40) 45.89 (21.26) 36.78 (23.53) 32.21 (26.81) <  0.0001
Proportion Hispanic residents (%) 17.12 (12.400 29.13 (18.53) 25.67 (18.82) 34.52 (22.98) 0.0004
Obesity prevalence (%) 17.87 (5.01) 22.31 (4.24) 26.53 (4.69) 29.72 (5.98) <  0.0001
Kidney disease prevalence (%) 2.17 (0.49) 2.84 (0.27) 3.20 (0.26) 3.67 (0.48) <  0.0001
Hypertension prevalence (%) 20.36 (4.00) 26.43 (2.15) 30.37 (3.13) 33.60 (3.41) <  0.0001
Heart Disease prevalence (%) 3.75 (1.01) 5.25 (0.42) 5.76 (0.59) 6.49 (0.81) <  0.0001
Diabetes prevalence (%) 6.87 (2.27) 10.48 (1.58) 11.78 (1.40) 13.13 (2.17) <  0.0001
COPD prevalence (%) 3.78 (1.11) 5.17 (0.62) 6.04 (0.72) 6.75 (0.90) < 0.0001
Cancer (except skin) prevalence (%) 5.02 (1.14) 5.49 (1.03) 5.55 (0.94 5.79 (1.53) 0.1333
Asthma prevalence (%) 8.46 (0.74) 8.92 (0.95) 10.11 (1.34) 10.80 (1.26) < 0.0001
Alcohol Hospitalizations prevalence (%) 1.71 (1.02) 1.36 (0.56) 1.51 (0.77) 2.26 (1.20) 0.0005
Birth rate (%) 1.25 (0.37) 1.16 (0.32) 1.26 (0.32) 1.30 (0.23) 0.0325
Hepatitis C prevalence (%) 0.05 (0.02) 0.05 (0.01) 0.05 (0.01) 0.08 (0.03) < 0.0001
Hepatitis B prevalence (%) 0.06 (0.07) 0.09 (0.09) 0.08 (0.07) 0.07 (0.04) < 0.0001
Proportion ≥ 65 years old (%) 12.3 (4.7) 14.88 (4.09) 14.51 (3.72) 15.73 (5.95) 0.0378
Socioeconomic status index 33.87 (21.38) 12.03 (17.72) −1.20 (18.74) −16.37 (22.08) < 0.0001
  1. The racial and Hispanic composition of each ZCTA were obtained from the 2018 American Community Survey 5-year estimates. Unless otherwise noted, all variables are reported per hundreds of residents. The socioeconomic status index was constructed from principal component analysis of 2018 American Community Survey estimates of median household income in the past 12 months, median gross rent, percent living below 150% of the poverty line, education, percent working class, percent unemployed, > 1 occupants per room. The education index was calculated on the population ≥ 25 years and is a weighted combination of the percent high school graduate, high school only, and more than high school, with a greater value indicating higher educational attainment